Plants & Human Affairs - Introduction
Cherries.wmf (7140 bytes) Plants & Human Affairs (BIOL106)  -  Stephen G. Saupe, Ph.D.; Biology Department, College of St. Benedict/St. John's University, Collegeville, MN 56321;;

Fermentation Products Study Questions

 Terms/Concepts:  Can you use the following in a conversation? 

  • aerobic

  • amylase

  • anaerobic

  • beer

  • bourbon

  • brandy

  • brewing

  • distilled spirit

  • enology

  • ethanol            

  • ethyl alcohol

  • fermentation

  • fortified wine

  • hops

  • krausening

  • lagering

  • malt

  • malting

  • mashing

  • pasteurization

  • pyruvic acid

  • rye

  • Saccharomyces

  • scotch

  • silage

  • viticulture

  • whiskey

  • wine

  • wort

  • yeast

 Questions for Thought and Study:

  1. What is fermentation?  Why does this process occur?

  2. Describe the two major types of fermentations.  What are the end products of these fermentations?  Name some commercially important products produced from each.  Name some organisms that carry out each.

  3. What is a yeast?  What is the function of yeast in fermentation?

  4. Compare and contrast wines, beers, distilled spirits and fortified wines.

  5. Suggest some reasons why beer has been such an important product throughout history.

  6. Describe the process of making beer in detail (malting, mashing, brewing, lagering).  Indicate what occurs during each of the four major phases of beer making.  What is the function of each step?

  7. Why are hops added to beer?

  8. What is the function of barley in beer making?

  9. Compare and contrast ales and lagers.

  10. What causes the head and cloudiness in beer?

  11. What is beechwood aging?   Why is it done?

  12. Explain how the home brewer carbonates beer.  A careless home brewer may have some bottles "explode" or to be "flat."  What would cause this to happen?

  13. What is the function of sulfur dioxide in wine making?

  14. Describe the process of wine making.

  15. Explain why the alcohol content of beer is typically less than that of wine.

  16. Why are naturally fermented wines never more than about 14-18% alcohol.

  17. How is champagne made?

  18. Describe briefly how the following beverages are prepared: mead, pulque,  mescal (tequila), sake, chicha, sherry, port

  19. Name the berry that is used to flavor gin.

  20. Name the plant/grain typically used to produce: rye whiskey, beer, wine, scotch whiskey, bourbon whiskey, rum, vodka

  21. Describe the difference between a sparkling and still wine.

  22. What is the difference between a simple (fermentable) sugar and a complex sugar (starch)?

  23. To where are grapes native?

  24. Explain why European wineries are both mad and grateful to North America (hint: Phylloxera)

  25. Explain how red and white wines are prepared.

  26. What part of the hops plant is used in beer making?

  27. In a video I watched a "bootlegger" said his whiskey was 300 proof.  What is wrong with this statement?

  28. True or false.  The same species of grapes are used to produce wine in North America and Europe.  Explain.

  29. Explain why "year" is important for wine.

  30. How are grapes propagated?

  31. True or false.  Red wines are made from red grapes, white wines from white (or green) grapes and rose wine from pink (purplish) grapes.  Explain.

  32. In what two states are most wines in the US produced?

  33. Compare and contrast a pot still with a patent still.

  34. What is a fortified wine?

  35. If a beverage is rated 100 proof � what does it mean?

  36. What is a sparkling wine?  How are they produced?
  37. Why is the maximum alcohol content of wine no higher than about 14%?
  38. Draw a graph showing the hypothesized relationship between yeast cell, alcohol concentration and time.
  39. Research suggests that small amounts of alcohol (ca. 1 drink per day) may have beneficial health affects.  List at least three.
  40. Research shows that large amounts of alcohol (more than ca. 1 drink per day) have negative effects.  List at least 6 negative consequences of alcohol consumption
  41. Explain why alcohol causes liver damage.
  42. What is fetal alcohol syndrome?
  43. What are flavanoids?

MatchingMatch each of the following with the appropriate beverage.

a.  absinthe
b.  brandy
c.  chicha
d.  gin
e. mead
f. mescal
g. pulque
h. rum
i.  sake
j. vodka
  1. _____distilled beverage, flavored with juniper berries

  2. _____ distilled wine

  3. _____ emerald green, mixed with wormwood extract

  4. _____ fermented from honey

  5. _____ fermented from molasses

  6. _____ fermented from rice

  7. _____ illegal, popular in late 19th century

  8. _____ starch hydrolyzed by black mold (Rhizopus)

  9. _____ starch hydrolyzed by salivary amylase

  10. _____ thujone, blocks GABA receptors inhibits neurons

 Multiple Choice:

1. Alcohol is a:
    a. depressant      b.  stimulant      c.  hallucinogen

2.  Which is an action of alcohol?
    a. inhibits brain center for speech
    b. impacts vision
    c. affects region of brain responsible for judgement
    d. attacks balance center in brain
    e. none of the above
    f.  all of the above

3.  Which of the following whiskeys is NOT matched corrected with its source?
    a.  scotch � barley         b.  bourbon � corn        c. rye - wheat


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Last updated:  11/09/2005     � Copyright  by SG Saupe