Autumn.wmf (12088 bytes) Concepts of Biology (BIOL116) - Dr. S.G. Saupe; Biology Department, College of St. Benedict / St. John's University, Collegeville, MN 56321;;

Study Guide & Review for Plant Structure 

I. Goal: The goal of this unit is to provide a basic understand of plant structure and function.

II. Learning Objectives: Upon completion of this unit you should be able to:

  1. Define and use terms relating to plant life span: herbaceous, woody, annual, biennial, perennial, deciduous, evergreen
  2. Identify the major plant organs/systems: root, shoot, leaves, stems, flowers, fruits
  3. Describe the structure and function of the major cell/tissue types: collenchyma, sclerenchyma (including sclerids, fibers), parenchyma
  4. Recall the hierarchy of biological organization? cells, tissues, organs, organ systems?  how does this relate to plants?
  5. Describe the structure and function of each of the following features of a leaf: blade, node, internode, axil, bud, stipules
  6. Describe the structure and function of each of the internal anatomical features of a leaf: cuticle, cutin, epidermis, spongy layer (mesophyll), palisade layer (mesophyll, parenchyma), vein, stoma, guard cell, trichomes
  7. Describe the following leaf adaptations and their functional importance: pine needle structure, carnivorous plants, tendrils, drip tips, spines.  Identify some leaf adaptations for survival in arid (dry, xeric) conditions.
  8. Relate plant structure to its function 
  9. Describe the features of a woody twig in winter: buds, bud scales, axillary (lateral) buds, node, internode, bud scale scar, leaf scar, vascular bundle scar, lenticels
  10. Identify the structure and function of the following features of a root: root cap, root hair, cortex, endodermis, casparian strip, pericycle, stele

III. Reading(s):

IV. Important Terms/Concepts: (can you use the following terms conversationally? can you write a dialog using these terms?)
axillary (lateral) buds
bud scale scar
bud scales
leaf scar
root cap
root hair
vascular bundle scar

 V. Personal Interest and Warm-Up: Quickly skim the assigned chapter, unit goal, learning objectives and web site notes. Write down any areas of particular interest to you. Then describe any personal experience that you have had with these topics. This could include previous work in high school, last semester in concepts, or in a non-academic setting. If you've had absolutely no previous experience with the topic, then write down how this topic may impact your daily life. Look through the objectives -  do you know the answer to any of them?

VI. Activities (some learning activities and tips for studying):

  1. prepare written answers to the objectives
  2. write a dialog using as many of the terms in the chapter as possible
  3. prepare a concept map for this material
  4. answer the questions at the end of the chapter
  5. go through the CD-ROM that accompanies the text.
  6. write a definition for each of the terms listed in the text/notes above. Give a specific example of each term
  7. write a definition for each of the terms given on the "terms-to-know" sheet.
  8. listen to the tape you prepared, over and over and over again.
  9. spend approximately 2 hours per class studying this material
  10. read the summary at the end of each chapter; then re-read each chapter summary.

VII. Using Other Resources: What have you learned about this topic from other resources including periodicals, AV material, web sites, people outside of class, etc.? Write down something you've learned about this topic from another source.

VIII. Extensions:

  1. Obtain a twig from a tree. Can you locate the structures shown in the text?
  2. Examine the cross-section of a woody stem in the display case outside of the herbarium. Can you locate the features described in the text?

IX. Questions: After completing the activities, write any question(s) that you still have concerning the objectives or that pertain to related areas.  Check the text or other sources for the answers.  Or, contact me!

X. Application: Write one or more ways in which you can immediately apply this information to your daily life.

XI. Assessment: Meet with one or more members of the class to help assess that you have attained the objective and to help deepen your understanding of the material. Answer the questions at the end of the chapters. Write your own exam questions. Go through the CD-ROM.

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