Autumn.wmf (12088 bytes) Concepts of Biology (BIOL116) - Dr. S.G. Saupe; Biology Department, College of St. Benedict/St. John's University, Collegeville, MN 56321;;

Study Guide & Review for Plant Structure 

I. Goal: The goal of this unit is to provide a basic understand of plant structure and function.

II. Reading(s):  Chapter 34

III.  Objectives Upon completion of this unit you should be able to:

  1. describe the structure and function of the major vegetative organs of a plant

  2. describe the different growth habits of plants (herb, shrub, tree, vine, forb, succulent)

  3. compare and contrast annuals, biennials and perennials.

  4. explain the life cycle of a winter annual.

  5. compare and contrast deciduous vs. evergreen

  6. describe the majors types of roots (tap, fibrous, adventitious)

  7. explain the structure and function of root hairs

  8. describe the nature and importance of mycorrhizae

  9. describe how Indian pipe, which is a completely white non-chlorophyllous flowering plant is able to survive

  10. identify some common root crops

  11. explain why root crops are often biennials

  12. label the parts of a typical woody plant stem (node, internode, bud, terminal bud, axillary bud, bud scale, terminal bud scale scar, leaf scar, lenticel, vascular bundle scar)

  13. describe how it is possible to determine the age of twig

  14. compare and contrast rhizomes, stolon, bulb, corm, and tuber and give examples of each.

  15. explain how to tell the difference between a root and an underground stem

  16. identify some common crops in which the stem is the primary tissue that is eaten.

  17. identify the major parts of a leaf

  18. describe the internal anatomy of a leaf and identify the function of each part (cuticle, epidermis, palisade layer, spongy layer, vein (vascular bundle), xylem, phloem, stomata)

  19. identify some leaf crops that are commonly eaten

  20. explain why leaves are broad and thin

  21. Which type of cells do you like to eat � collencyma, parenchyma or sclerenchyma � and why?

  22. Identify the "Function" for each of the following leaf structures:  cuticle, epidermis, guard cells and stomata, palisade layer, mesophyll layer, vein, xylem, phloem

  23. describe the differences between monocots and eudicots

  24. identify the three major cell types

  25. Circle all of the terms that apply to the following species:

 IV.  Common Terms/Concepts (can you use the following terms/concepts conversationally?)

  • adventitious root

  • annual

  • axillary (lateral) bud

  • biennial

  • blade

  • bud

  • bud scale

  • bud scale scar

  • bulb

  • corm

  • crown

  • cuticle

  • deciduous

  • epidermis

  • evergreen


  • fibrous root

  • internode

  • leaf

  • lenticel

  • meristem

  • mycorrhizae

  • node

  • palisade layer

  • perennial

  • petiole

  • rhizome

  • root

  • root hair

  • runner

  • shoot

  • simple leaves

  • spongy layer


  • stem

  • stipules

  • stomata

  • tap root

  • tendril

  • tuber

  • tuberous root

  • vascular bundle scar

  • vascular tissue

  • vegetative

  • vein

  • warm/cool season

  • water sprout

  • winter annual












V.  More Questions
:  Can you.....

  1. name the major organs of a plant and identify their function?
  2. identify some common crops derived from roots?
  3. identify some common crops derived from stems, including tubers, rhizomes, corms and bulbs?
  4. identify which organs are considered vegetative?

VII.  Challenge Problems: Can you name a seed-plant plant that has:

  1. leaves and stems, but no roots?
  2. stems and roots, but no leaves?
  3. no distinct stems, leaves or roots
  4. no chlorophyll?
  5. stems, leaves and roots but not flowers or fruits?

 VII. Personal Interest and Warm-Up: Quickly skim the assigned chapter, unit goal, learning objectives and web site notes. Write down any areas of particular interest to you. Then describe any personal experience that you have had with these topics. This could include previous work in high school, last semester in concepts, or in a non-academic setting. If you've had absolutely no previous experience with the topic, then write down how this topic may impact your daily life. Look through the objectives -  do you know the answer to any of them?

VIII. Activities (some learning activities and tips for studying):

  1. prepare written answers to the objectives
  2. write a dialog using as many of the terms in the chapter as possible
  3. prepare a concept map for this material
  4. answer the questions at the end of the chapter
  5. go through the CD-ROM that accompanies the text.
  6. write a definition for each of the terms listed in the text/notes above. Give a specific example of each term
  7. write a definition for each of the terms given on the "terms-to-know" sheet.
  8. listen to the tape you prepared, over and over and over again.
  9. spend approximately 2 hours per class studying this material
  10. read the summary at the end of each chapter; then re-read each chapter summary.

IX. Extensions:

  1. Obtain a twig from a tree. Can you locate the structures shown in the text?
  2. Examine the cross-section of a woody stem in the display case outside of the herbarium. Can you locate the features described in the text?
  3. View the "Private Lives of Plants" Videos in the Alcuin Library

X. Questions: After completing the activities, write any question(s) that you still have concerning the objectives or that pertain to related areas.  Check the text or other sources for the answers.  Or, contact me!

XI. Application: Write one or more ways in which you can immediately apply this information to your daily life.

XII. Assessment: Meet with one or more members of the class to help assess that you have attained the objective and to help deepen your understanding of the material. Answer the questions at the end of the chapters. Write your own exam questions. Go through the CD-ROM.  Visit the text book web site and answer the questions for chapter 34.

XIII.  Good Web Sites(consider visiting these web sites and studying the images)


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Last updated: January 29, 2004        � Copyright by SG Saupe