Spring.wmf (18300 bytes) Plant Physiology (Biology 327)  - Dr. Stephen G. Saupe;  College of St. Benedict/ St. John's University;  Biology Department; Collegeville, MN  56321; (320) 363 - 2782; (320) 363 - 3202, fax;    ssaupe@csbsju.edu

Study Guide:  Cell Unit

Goal: The goal of this unit is to examine the structure and function of plant cells and to study the process by which plant cells grow.

Objectives:  Upon completion of this unit you should be able to:

  1. Name and discuss the function of the organelles found in both plant and animal cells.
  2. Name, identify and discuss the role of the various plastids in plants.
  3. Discuss the role of vacuoles in plant cells.
  4. Describe the structure and role and formation of the cell wall.
  5. Discuss the cell wall-cell growth paradox and how this problem is solved.
  6. Explain how cells grow.

Required Readings 

Supplemental Study Materials:

Questions for Thought & Study:

  1. Why is the study of cells important?
  2. What are the two major regions of a plant cell?  Discuss each in terms of  structure and function.
  3. Describe the basic procedure by which you would isolate plant cells or  protoplasts from leaf tissue.
  4. Why do plant cells have intercellular spaces?  What is their function?
  5. Describe the structure, function and location in the cell of the following organelles:  plasma membrane, nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, glyoxysome, peroxisome, mitochondria, oleosomes, microtubules, microfilaments.
  6. What is catalase?  Where is it found in plant cells?
  7. What is a plastid?  Discuss some of the attributes of these organelles.
  8. Compare and contrast the different types of plastids. 
  9. Discuss the anatomy and function of plasmodesmata.
  10. Discuss the properties and significance of the vacuole.
  11. What is meant that cellulose is a "metabolic bargain?"
  12. Describe the typical plant cell.  Is there such a thing?
  13. Explain why it can be said that infants begin "plant-like and become animal-like".
  14. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells.  What do they have in common?  How do they differ?
  15. Give some examples of marker enzymes.
  16. Identify the function and location of the following enzymes: catalase, alpha-mannosidase, glycolate oxidase
  17. Describe the fluid mosaic model for the cell membrane.
  18. Cite evidence for a proton pump in the tonoplast.
  19. Are plant cells prokaryotic or eukaryotic? 
  20. What is the plant endomembrane system?  Which components are included in this system?
  21. Compare and contrast plants and animals in terms of nutrient ingestion, waste production and waste disposal.

Compare Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Organisms: Complete the following table comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.  (not on exam)

  Prokaryotic Eukaryotic 
Example (name some organism)    
Kingdom(s) with these type of cells    
Cell size  (less than 10 μm; greater than 10 μm)    
Organelles (present/absent)    
ribosomes (yes/no)    
nucleus (yes/no)    
organization of DNA (circular, linear)    
Cell organization (uni vs. multicellular)    
plastids (yes/no)    
photosynthesis (yes/no)    
mitochondria (yes/ no)    
respiration (yes/no)    
9 + 2 microtubules (yes/no)    
first to evolve    


Compare Plants, Animals and Prokaryotes.   Using a (+) or other symbol, indicate which of the cell structures occurs in each group. (not on exam)

  prokaryote plant cell animal cell
cell wall      
central vacuole      
phospholipid bilayer      
nuclear envelope      

Relationship Question:
    For each of the following pairs, indicate if the first is part of the second (A), or the second is part of the first (B), or they have no particular relationship to each other (N):

 ____ mitochondria, cristae    

____ golgi complex, nucleus  

____ nucleolus, nucleus

Concept Map:  can you make a concept map containing the names of all the organelles?  Or, try to fill-in the concept map posted here.

Classification Question:
    For each of the following, select the one that doesn't fit and then write a caption to describe the relationship between the remaining four.  For example:  oak tree, dandelion, daisy, orchid, dead cat.  Dead cat doesn't fit.  The remaining four are �plants.�  Note there may be more than one correct answer.

  1. mitochondrion, nucleus, chloroplast, lysosome, amyloplast

  2. amyloplast, chloroplast, chromoplast, golgi body, etioplast

  3. stroma, matrix, cytoplasm, nucleoplasm, cell membrane

  4. endoplasmic reticulum, golgi body, mitochondrion, plasma membrane, tonoplast

  5. chromatin, mesosome, nucleoplasm, nucleolus, nuclear envelope

  6. middle lamella, plasma membrane, plasmodesmata, primary wall, secondary wall

  7. actin, cisternae, microtubule, microfibril, tubulin

  8. glyoxisome, lysosome, microsome, microbody, peroxisome

True or false (if false, correct the statement):

  1. _____ Some cells are large enough to be seen with the naked eye

  2. _____ the surface/volume ratio is usually larger for a prokaryotic cell than a eukaryotic cell

  3. _____ The ribosomes found in your mitochondria are more like the ribosomes of bacteria than like the ribosomes in the cytoplasm of your muscle cells

  4. _____ Since prokaryotic cells lack mitochondria and chloroplasts, they cannot carry out photosynthesis or respiration

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Last updated:  01/29/2009     � Copyright  by SG Saupe