STUDY GUIDE 1
CHEMISTRY AND SOCIETY
For the first examination, you should be
- use critical thinking skills in analyzing
- explain these terms as applied to the
development of scientific ideas: hypotheses, deductions, laws,
theories, correlation, causation, falsification
- understand the difference between
homogeneous (solutions) and heterogeneous mixtures and the
difference between pure elements and pure compounds, giving
- understand the principles underlying
methods to separate the components of mixtures into pure
substances; explain methods used to separate mixtures, including filtration,
distillation, paper chromatography.
- understand the differences between chemical
and physical reactions.
- explain our modern concepts of atoms
(protons, neutrons, and electrons), the difference between
molecules, atom, ions, molecular ions.
- given the atomic number, determine the
number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in an atom.
- explain how the structure of the periodic
table, and the reactivity of elements in groups in the table is determined
by the arrangement of elements' electrons into shells.
- explain the different types of bonds
(ionic, polar covalent, nonpolar covalent) between atoms or ions
- determine the formal charge on an atom or ion, and
determine if an atom in a covalent bond as a slight negative or positive
- draw the best Lewis structures for
covalently bonded molecules and molecular (polyatomic) ions, showing the formal charge and
presence of slight positive and negative charge on the atoms
within the structure
- predict the geometry of the electrons
clouds and of the atoms around the central atom of a molecule or molecular ion
- explain bond polarity and molecule
polarity, and be able to predict their existence in a given
- identify and explain the different types of
intermolecular forces (IMF) including ion..ion,
dipole..dipole, H bond, and London forces
- explain how the strength of IMF affects
boiling and melting points
- describe different types of solutions,
their characteristics, and solubiility
- explain how solubility can be explained
- explain the difference between electrolytes
- draw "cartoon" structures of simple lipids
and use them to explain the solubility properties of lipids in
- explain how detergent micelles and bilayers
form through IMF.
- identify precipitation reactions, and
predict the products of precipitation reactions (such as for the reaction of
NaCl (aq) and AgNO3(aq) using solubility rules.
- define an acid and a base, identify
acid/base reactions, and predict the products of that
- explain the differences between strong and
- know three strong acids and two strong
bases; know one weak acid and one weak base;
- draw a mechanism to show how water reacts
with acids and bases;
- define oxidation, reduction, oxidizing
agent, reducing agent, and oxidation numbers.
- identify redox reactions and assign
oxidation numbers to all atoms in the equation.