CHEMISTRY AND SOCIETY
For the second examination, you should be
- Draw a reaction mechanism to show and
explain how hydroxide and water chemically reacts with aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and carboxylic acid derivatives
(whose structures will be given to you).
- Identify hydrolysis reactions.
- Given a pair of similar molecular species,
predict which would be a better leaving group.
- Explain the relationship between reactivity, energy, and
stability of a molecule.
Given a protein
structure, identify the main chains atoms, the backbone, the amino acid side
chains, and amide links that connect the individual monomers.
bond donors (δ+
Hs) and acceptors (lone pairs on δ-
Os and Ns) on proteins.
properties of the main chains and side chain amino acids of a protein given
substructures within a protein including alpha helices and beta
Describe how a
protein can be chemically cleaved by water to form individual, separated amino acids.
structure and properties of double stranded DNA including the backbone,
double helix, bases, base pairs, and major and minor groves.
differences in structure between DNA and RNA.
Describe the flow of
information in the Central Dogma of Biology.
Explain the differences between DNA replication, DNA transcription,
and RNA translation.
Given a dsDNA structure, and which strand is the template strand,
determine the amino acid sequence of the protein derived from transcription of the DNA
using the genetic code.
Define a gene.
Predict the probable effect of a mutation in the DNA on the resulting
protein's structure AND function for
mutations that changed buried, surface, and surface-active site amino acids.
- Explain and use images to discuss how gene
transcription is regulated.
- Describe structures involved in regulation
of gene transcription including RNA polymerase, transcription factors, DNA
- Describe cell differentiation at the cell
and DNA level. (i.e. describe typical changes in cell
- Describe the process of signal
- Given diagrams, explain steps in signal
transduction pathways that activate or inhibit specific cellular activities
such as glycogen breakdown, gene transcription, etc.
- Describe the roles of kinases,
phosphatases, and second messengers in signal transduction pathways.
- Describe the role of Na+/K+
ATPase and ungated K+ channels in establishing transmembrane ion
gradients and membrane potentials in neurons.
- Describe the role of
neurotransmitter-gated and voltage-gated (such as sodium and potassium) channels in nerve firing (action
- Describe changes in transmembrane
potentials and ion concentrations during an action potential.
- Describe the effects of stimulatory (ex:
Glutamate channels) and inhibitory channels (ex: GABA) in neuron firing.
- Describe the effects of antianxiety agents
(benzodiazepenes like valium) and ethanol on GABA channels, and the effects
of benzodiazapene inhbitors (antagonists) like Ro-15-4513.
- Define tolerance, sensitization and
- Describe long term effects on gene
transcription that affect addictive behaviors such as tolerance,
sensitization, and dependence.