Spring 2005

The third examination will cover Infectious Disease: Influenza and most of Pandemic of the 21st Century: Obesity and Obesity (up to what we cover in class). 

One of the main features of the test will be the interpretation of diagrams of pathways and interactions (such as in the immune system) that we discussed in class.  In preparation, review the many diagrams and figures from the web material.  Then draw them on your own (for the simpler one) or interpret each part of the diagram.  If you can explain the diagrams to yourself (or a friend) and your explanation matches that found on the web sites, you will be in good shape for the exam.

Tentative List

  1. Describe the differences between bacteria and viruses
  2. Describe the life cycle of the influenza virus
  3. Describe why the influenza virus mutates so easily
  4. Describe the difference between antigenic drift, shift and jumps in influenza epidemics/pandemics
  5. Describe the role of hemagluttinin  (H) and neuramindase (N) in influenza virus activity
  6. Describe how influenza drugs like Tamiflu work
  7. Describe the methods to produce vaccines against influenza virus
  8. Describe the role of cytokines and chemokines in the immune system
  9. Describe what is meant by a cytokine storm.
  10. Explain the differences between the innate and adaptive immune system.
  11. Describe the role of Toll-Like Receptors (TLK) in innate immune cells like macrophages and dendritic cells.
  12. Interpret diagrams showing the interaction of antigen presenting cells (macrophages/dendritic cells and virally infected/tumor cells with immune cells (T cells, B cells) and the roles of MHC proteins.
  13. Describe factors that contribute to our perception of risk and differentiate perceived risk from probable risk.
  14. Balance simple equations.
  15. Understand the relationships among mole, molecular or atomic mass, and molar mass
  16. Define molarity, understand the relationships among moles, volume, mass, and molarity,.
  17. Calculate the amount (in grams or moles) of a product or reactant given the number of grams or molecules of other reactants or products.
  18. Calculate energy changes in combustion reactions based on temperature changes in water that occur on burning a sample.
  19. Describe what is meant by limiting and excess reactants
  20. Given diagrams, explain the general roles and important features of glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid oxidation
  21. Describe the biological roles of NAD, FAD, and O2 in electron transport
  22. Explain how NAD+ is regenerated from NADH in anaerobic and aerobic metabolism.
  23. Describe how ATP is made in glycolysis and in electron transport.
  24. Identify molecules with anhydride motifs like ATP, anhydrides, etc.
  25. Describe the contrasting roles of glucagon and insulin in glucose metabolism.
  26. Given diagrams, describe the coordination of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
  27. Given diagrams, explain the effects of insulin on muscles and adipose cells.
  28. Given diagrams, describe how changes in signal transduction pathways might produce in Type II diabetes
  29. Given diagrams, describe the role of adipose tissue in regulating metabolism.
  30. Describe changes in signal transduction pathways in Type II diabetes and obesity
  31. Describe the connections between Type II diabetes and obesity.