CHEMISTRY AND SOCIETY
For the final examination, you should be
- explain these terms as applied to the
development of scientific ideas: hypotheses, deductions, laws,
theories, correlation, causation, falsification
- identify in an experiment the independent and
dependent variables, and those held fixed.
- give an example of a scientific theory which must be
falsifiable, and a non-scientific theory, one that is not.
- understand the difference between
homogeneous (solutions) and heterogeneous mixtures and the
difference between pure elements and pure compounds
- understand the differences between chemical
and physical reactions.
- given the atomic number, determine the
number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in an atom.
- explain the different types of bonds
(ionic, polar covalent, nonpolar covalent) between atoms or ions
- determine the formal charge on an atom or ion, and
determine if an atom in a covalent bond as a slight negative or positive
- determine the best Lewis structures for
covalently bonded molecules and molecular (polyatomic) ions, showing the formal charge and
presence of slight positive and negative charge on the atoms
within the structure
- predict the geometry of the electrons
clouds and of the atoms around the central atom of a molecule or molecular ion
- explain bond polarity and molecule
polarity, and be able to predict their existence in a given
- identify and explain the different types of
intermolecular forces (IMF) including ion..ion,
dipole..dipole, H bond, and London forces
- explain how the strength of IMF affects
boiling and melting points
- explain how detergent micelles and bilayers
form through IMF.
- identify precipitation reactions
- define an acid and a base, identify
- know typical examples of strong and weak acid
- interpret a reaction mechanism that shows how hydroxide and water chemically reacts with aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and carboxylic acid derivatives
(whose structures will be given to you).
- identify redox reactions, oxidizing
agents, and reducing agents
- Given a pair of similar molecular species,
predict which would be a more stable and hence better leaving group in water.
- Explain the relationship between reactivity, energy, and
stability of a molecule.
bond donors (δ+
Hs) and acceptors (lone pairs on δ-
Os and Ns) on proteins.
substructures within a protein including alpha helices and beta
structure and properties of double stranded DNA including the backbone,
double helix, bases, base pairs, and major and minor groves.
differences in structure between DNA and RNA.
Understand the Central Dogma of Biology.
Explain the differences between DNA replication, DNA transcription,
and RNA translation.
Given a dsDNA structure, and which strand is the template strand,
determine the amino acid sequence of the protein derived from transcription of the DNA
using the genetic code.
Define a gene.
Predict the probable effect of a mutation in the DNA on the resulting
protein's structure AND function for
mutations that changed buried, surface, and surface-active site amino acids.
- Interpret images to discuss how gene
transcription is regulated
- Explain the role of transcription factors
and RNA polymerase in gene transcription
- Describe the process of signal
- Describe the roles of protein kinases,
protein phosphatases, and second messengers in signal transduction pathways.
- Describe the role of Na+/K+
ATPase and ungated K+ channels in establishing transmembrane ion
gradients and membrane potentials in neurons.
- Describe the role of
neurotransmitter-gated and voltage-gated channels in nerve firing (action
- Describe the effects of stimulatory (ex:
Glutamate channels) and inhibitory channels (ex: GABA) in neuron firing.
- Describe the effects of antianxiety agents
(benzodiazepenes like valium) and ethanol on GABA channels, and the effects
of benzodiazapene inhbitors (antagonists) like Ro-15-4513.
- Describe the differences between bacteria
- Describe the life cycle of the influenza
- Describe why the influenza virus mutates so easily
- Describe the difference between antigentic drift, shift and jumps in
- Describe the role of hemagluttinin (H) and neuramindase (N) in influenza virus
- Describe how influenza drugs like Tamiflu work
- Describe the methods to produce vaccines against influenza virus
- Describe the role of cytokines and chemokines in the immune system
- Describe what is meant by a cytokine storm.
- Explain the differences between the innate and adaptive immune system.
- Describe the role of Toll-Like Receptors (TLK) in innate immune cells
like macrophages and dendritic cells.
- Interpret diagrams showing the interaction of antigen presenting cells
(macrophages/dendritic cells and virally infected/tumor cells with immune cells
(T cells, B cells) and the roles of MHC proteins.
- Describe factors that contribute to our perception of risk and
differentiate perceived risk from probable risk.
- Balance simple equations.
- Understand the relationships among mole, molecular or
atomic mass, and molar mass
- Define molarity, understand the relationships among moles, volume,
mass, and molarity,.
- Calculate the amount (in grams or moles) of a
product or reactant given the number of grams or molecules of other
reactants or products.
- Describe what is meant by limiting and excess
- Given diagrams, explain the general roles of
glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
- Describe the biological roles of NAD, FAD, and O2
- Describe the contrasting roles of glucagon and
insulin in glucose metabolism.
- Given diagrams, describe the coordination of
carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
- Given diagrams, explain the effects of insulin on
- Given diagrams, describe changes in signal
transduction pathways in Type II diabetes
- Given diagrams, describe the role of adipose tissue
in regulating metabolism.
- Describe changes in signal transduction pathways in
Type II diabetes and obesity
- Describe the connections between Type II diabetes