STUDY GUIDE:  Final Exam


Spring 2007

For the final examination, you should be able to:

  1. explain these terms as applied to the development of scientific ideas:  hypotheses, deductions, laws, theories, correlation, causation, falsification
  2. identify in an experiment the independent and dependent variables, and those held fixed.
  3. give an example of a scientific theory which must be falsifiable, and a non-scientific theory, one that is not.
  4. understand the difference between homogeneous (solutions) and heterogeneous mixtures and the difference between pure elements and pure compounds
  5. understand the differences between chemical and physical reactions.
  6. given the atomic number, determine the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in an atom.
  7. explain the different types of bonds (ionic, polar covalent, nonpolar covalent) between atoms or ions in molecules,
  8. determine the formal charge on an atom or ion, and determine if an atom in a covalent bond as a slight negative or positive charge
  9. determine the best Lewis structures for covalently bonded molecules and molecular (polyatomic) ions, showing the formal charge and presence of slight positive and negative charge on the atoms within the structure
  10. predict the geometry of the electrons clouds and of the atoms around the central atom of a molecule or molecular ion
  11. explain bond polarity and molecule polarity, and be able to predict their existence in a given molecule.
  12. identify and explain the different types of intermolecular forces (IMF) including ion..ion, dipole..dipole, H bond, and London forces
  13. explain how the strength of IMF affects boiling and melting points
  14. explain how detergent micelles and bilayers form through IMF.
  15. identify precipitation reactions
  16. define an acid and a base, identify acid/base reactions.. 
  17. know typical examples of  strong and weak acid and base
  18. interpret a reaction mechanism that shows  how hydroxide and water chemically reacts with aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and carboxylic acid derivatives (whose structures will be given to you).
  19. identify redox reactions, oxidizing agents, and reducing agents
  20. Given a pair of similar molecular species, predict which would be a more stable and hence better leaving group in water.
  21. Explain the relationship between reactivity, energy, and stability of a molecule.
  22. Identify hydrogen bond donors (δ+ Hs) and acceptors (lone pairs on δ- Os and Ns) on proteins.

  23. Describe substructures within a protein including alpha helices and beta sheets.

  24. Describe the structure and properties of double stranded DNA including the backbone, double helix, bases, base pairs, and major and minor groves.

  25. Describe the differences in structure between DNA and RNA. 

  26. Understand the Central Dogma of Biology.

  27. Explain the differences between DNA replication, DNA transcription, and RNA translation.

  28. Given a dsDNA structure, and which strand is the template strand, determine the amino acid sequence of the protein derived from transcription of the DNA using the genetic code.

  29. Define a gene.

  30. Predict the probable effect of a mutation in the DNA on the resulting protein's structure AND function for mutations that changed buried, surface, and surface-active site amino acids.

  31. Interpret images to discuss how gene transcription is regulated
  32. Explain the role of transcription factors and RNA polymerase in gene transcription
  33. Describe the process of signal transduction.
  34. Describe the roles of protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and second messengers in signal transduction pathways.
  35. Describe the role of Na+/K+ ATPase and ungated K+ channels in establishing transmembrane ion gradients and membrane potentials in neurons.
  36. Describe the role of neurotransmitter-gated and voltage-gated channels in nerve firing (action potential).
  37. Describe the effects of stimulatory (ex: Glutamate channels) and inhibitory channels (ex: GABA) in neuron firing.
  38. Describe the effects of antianxiety agents (benzodiazepenes like valium) and ethanol on GABA channels, and the effects of benzodiazapene inhbitors (antagonists) like Ro-15-4513.
  39. Describe the differences between bacteria and viruses
  40. Describe the life cycle of the influenza virus
  41. Describe why the influenza virus mutates so easily
  42. Describe the difference between antigentic drift, shift and jumps in influenza epidemics/pandemics
  43. Describe the role of hemagluttinin  (H) and neuramindase (N) in influenza virus activity
  44. Describe how influenza drugs like Tamiflu work
  45. Describe the methods to produce vaccines against influenza virus
  46. Describe the role of cytokines and chemokines in the immune system
  47. Describe what is meant by a cytokine storm.
  48. Explain the differences between the innate and adaptive immune system.
  49. Describe the role of Toll-Like Receptors (TLK) in innate immune cells like macrophages and dendritic cells.
  50. Interpret diagrams showing the interaction of antigen presenting cells (macrophages/dendritic cells and virally infected/tumor cells with immune cells (T cells, B cells) and the roles of MHC proteins.
  51. Describe factors that contribute to our perception of risk and differentiate perceived risk from probable risk.
  52. Balance simple equations.
  53. Understand the relationships among mole, molecular or atomic mass, and molar mass
  54. Define molarity, understand the relationships among moles, volume, mass, and molarity,.
  55. Calculate the amount (in grams or moles) of a product or reactant given the number of grams or molecules of other reactants or products.
  56. Describe what is meant by limiting and excess reactants
  57. Given diagrams, explain the general roles of glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
  58. Describe the biological roles of NAD, FAD, and O2
  59. Describe the contrasting roles of glucagon and insulin in glucose metabolism.
  60. Given diagrams, describe the coordination of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
  61. Given diagrams, explain the effects of insulin on cells.
  62. Given diagrams, describe changes in signal transduction pathways in Type II diabetes
  63. Given diagrams, describe the role of adipose tissue in regulating metabolism.
  64. Describe changes in signal transduction pathways in Type II diabetes and obesity
  65. Describe the connections between Type II diabetes and obesity.