CHAPTERS: 7 and 8


Fall 2001

For the third examination, you should be able to:

  1. explain the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid
  2. draw the structures of a strong acid and a weak acid and their reactions with water.
  3. explain the difference between a strong base and a weak base
  4. draw the structures of a strong base and a weak base and their reactions with water.
  5. be able to compare the acid/base strength of similar molecules by comparing the stability of reactants and products
  6. be able to explain the relationship between reactivity, energy, and stability of a molecule.
  7. explain the meaning of equilibrium and the equilibrium constant, Keq
  8. explain the concepts or irreversible and reactant- or product-favored reversible reactions, and give examples
  9. draw and interpret a graph showing the concentration of reactants and products during a chemical reaction and calculate the equilibrium constant from the graph.
  10. explain Le Chatelier's principle
  11. explain the meaning of Gibbs Free Energy
  12. predict the relative size, and explain graphically, mathematically, and verbally the meaning of ΔG, Δstab , and ΔGconc
  13. explain how ΔG, Δstab , and ΔGconc determine the direction and extent of a reaction,
  14. explain graphically and verbally the relationship between ΔG, Δstab and ΔGconc , and Le Chatelier's Principle.
  15. describe the meaning of the transition state and the activation energy of a reaction
  16. explain the difference between the extent and rate of a reaction and what determines each one.
  17. explain graphically and verbally, why carbohydrates are such good sources of energy, but why they also react so slowly with molecular oxygen.
  18. explain and differentiate between Keq, Ka, and Kw.
  19. given the concentration of acids and their relative strengths (Ka value), determine the pH of a solution.
  20. explain how polyprotic acids react differently with either water or strong bases
  21. explain the meaning of pKa
  22. explain how a buffer solution works to minimize pH changes on addition of acid or base
  23. explain how carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid
  24. explain how carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffers the blood from changes in pH.
  25. explain how rapid and deep breathing (hyperventilation) can cause respiratory alkalosis
  26. explain how obstructed breathing (from pulmonary disease, or a physical obstruction) can cause respiratory acidosis.