CH 112 STUDY GUIDE:
EXAM 1: SPRING 2004
For the first examination, you should be able to:
- be able to draw and identify different organic functional group,
including alkenes, alcohols, amines, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and carboxylic
acid derivatives, including anhydrides, esters and amides.
- to be able to identify and explain different reaction types,
including redox, addition, elimination, substitution, hydrolysis, acid/base, hydration,
- explain the common reactions of alkenes, alcohols, amines, carboxylic
acids, and carboxylic acid derivatives , including anhydrides, esters, and amides..
- define nucleophile, electrophile, and leaving group and give
- draw reaction mechanisms showing curved arrows to identify bond
making and breaking
- explain the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid, and a
strong base and weak base. Give examples of each.
- draw the structures of a strong acid, a weak acid, a strong base, and
a weak base and their reactions with water.
- be able to predict the products of reactions of alkenes, alcohols,
amines, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and carboxylic acid derivatives.
- be able to describe the three ways in which a covalent bond to carbon
may be broken, resulting in either a carbanion, carbocation, or free radical.
- be able to compare the chemical reactivity of similar molecules by
explaining how reactants, intermediates and products are stabilized during the course of a
- Given a pair of similar molecular species, predict which would be a
stronger acid, stronger base, stronger nucleophile, and better leaving group.
- be able to explain the relationship between reactivity, energy, and
stability of a molecule.
- be able to explain how electron withdrawing substituents stabilize
carbanions and destabilize carbocations.
- be able to explain how electron withdrawing substituents destabilize
carbocations and stabilize carbanions.
- define oxidation, reduction, oxidizing agent, reducing agent, and
identify which reactions are redox reactions.
- explain graphically, mathematically, and verbally, the two factors
that determine the direction and extent of a reaction, ΔG�stab and ΔGconc.
- explain the meaning of Gibbs Free Energy
- describe the meaning of the transition state and the activation
energy of a reaction
- explain the difference between the extent and rate of a reaction and
what determines each one. .
- identify and draw the structures of phosphoanhydrides,
phosphoesters, and mixed anhydrides (of carboxylic and phosphoric acids)
- explain and interpret equilibrium constants
- explain the meaning of pH and Ka
- explain how buffers control pH fluctuations