For the first examination, you should be able to:

  1. be able to draw and identify different organic functional group, including alkenes, alcohols, amines, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and carboxylic acid derivatives, including anhydrides, esters and amides.
  2. to be able to identify and explain different reaction types, including redox, addition, elimination, substitution, hydrolysis, acid/base, hydration, dehydration, etc.
  3. explain the common reactions of alkenes, alcohols, amines, carboxylic acids, and carboxylic acid derivatives , including anhydrides, esters, and  amides..
  4. define nucleophile, electrophile, and leaving group and give examples.
  5. draw reaction mechanisms showing curved arrows to identify bond making and breaking
  6. explain the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid, and a strong base and weak base.  Give examples of each.
  7. draw the structures of a strong acid, a weak acid, a strong base, and a weak base and their reactions with water.
  8. be able to predict the products of reactions of alkenes, alcohols, amines, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and carboxylic acid derivatives.
  9. be able to describe the three ways in which a covalent bond to carbon may be broken, resulting in either a carbanion, carbocation, or free radical.
  10. be able to compare the chemical reactivity of similar molecules by explaining how reactants, intermediates and products are stabilized during the course of a chemical reaction.
  11. Given a pair of similar molecular species, predict which would be a stronger acid, stronger base, stronger nucleophile, and better leaving group.
  12. be able to explain the relationship between reactivity, energy, and stability of a molecule.
  13. be able to explain how electron withdrawing substituents stabilize carbanions and destabilize carbocations.
  14. be able to explain how electron withdrawing substituents destabilize carbocations and stabilize carbanions.
  15. define oxidation, reduction, oxidizing agent, reducing agent, and identify which reactions are redox reactions.
  16. explain graphically, mathematically, and verbally, the two factors that determine the direction and extent of a reaction, ΔG�stab and ΔGconc.
  17. explain the meaning of Gibbs Free Energy
  18. describe the meaning of the transition state and the activation energy of a reaction
  19. explain the difference between the extent and rate of a reaction and what determines each one. .
  20.  identify and draw the structures of phosphoanhydrides, phosphoesters, and mixed anhydrides (of carboxylic and phosphoric acids)
  21. explain and interpret equilibrium constants
  22. explain the meaning of pH and Ka
  23. explain how buffers control pH fluctuations