STUDY GUIDE - TEST 1:
CH123: General Chemistry - Fall 2006
For the first examination, you should be able to:
- use dimensional analysis in problem solving.
- express numbers in scientific notation to the appropriate number of
significant figures and with the correct units.
- understand the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous
mixtures and the difference between pure elements and pure compounds, giving examples.
- understand the principles underlying methods to separate the
components of mixtures into pure substances; explain the principles of chromatography.
- understand the difference between chemical and physical reactions.
- understand early concepts in the development of
chemistry and how the ideas of specific people influenced the development of our concept of matter:
- La Voisier Law of mass
- Law of Constant Composition
- Dalton - Law of Multiple Proportions; Atomic Theory
- Law of Combining Volumes of Gases
- Avogadro - Molecules; Avogadro's Hypothesis
- Thompson - discovery of the electron; Plum Pudding model of the
- Millikan - oil drop experiment
- Rutherford - nuclear model of the atom
- explain in words and through geometric symbols for atoms/molecules
(a nanoscopic representation) how Dalton's Atomic Theory and Avogadro's Hypothesis can explain the Laws of Mass
Conservation, Constant Composition, Multiple Proportions, and Combining Volumes
- describe the differences between laws and theories.
- identify in an experiment the independent and
dependent variables, and those held fixed.
- give an example of a scientific theory which must be
falsifiable, and a non-scientific theory, one that is not.
- explain the difference between atoms, molecules, ions, and molecular
(polyatomic) ions. Give examples of each.
- name ionic compounds and simple binary compounds of nonmetals.
- describe how magnetic and electric fields affects the movement of
- describe the atomic and molecular mass scales.
- define isotopes and allotropes and give examples
- use dimensional analysis to
convert between moles, molar mass, and number of particles.
- explain periodic law embodied in the empirical arrangement of elements
in the periodic table
- describe how the arrangement of electrons into shells explains the
organization of the periodic table
- explain a graph showing ionization energies of the
element as a function of atomic number is consistent with a shell-like
structure for the arrangement of electrons around nuclei
- describe the differences between ionic, polar covalent, and nonpolar
- Identify ionic, polar covalent, and nonpolar covalent bonds in
- describe the meaning of electronegativity
- write molecular and condensed formulas for molecules
- draw Lewis structures for molecules and molecular ions
- determine formal charge and partial charges in any
- know the formula and Lewis structures of common molecular ions
- draw a mechanism with Lewis structures using curved
arrows to show electron flow in the forming and breaking of bonds in the
formation of products
- write formulas for salts containing molecular ions
- determine the formal charge on any atom/ion
- explain how molecular ions often arise from the
reaction of water with oxyacids
- describe atoms, molecules and their properties using
macroscopic, nanoscopic, symbolic, and mathematical representations
- understand the relationships among mole, molecular or
atomic mass, and molar mass
- write, balance, and interpret simple chemical equations,
- define molarity, understand the relationships among moles, volume,
mass, and molarity,.
- average atomic weight of an element given abundancy of isotopes
- % composition of a given element in a compound
- number of particles, moles, or mass, given two of the three
- empirical formula of a compound
- molecular formula given the empirical formula and molecular weight
- values of molarity, volume, mass given any two.
- stoichiometric relations (moles, grams, or molarity)
under a variety of conditions including excess/limiting reagents and in
Note: Questions based on the lab might be expected.