CH123: General Chemistry - Fall 2006

Dr. Jakubowski

For the third examination, you should be able to:

  1. Describe the differences between ionic, polar covalent, and nonpolar covalent bonds.
  2. Be able to draw Lewis symbols for simple covalent molecules, and for molecules with a deficient and expanded octets. 
  3. Explain electronegativity and how it is related to average bond energies (bond dissociation energies) and average valence electron ionization energies (AVEIE).
  4. Given heats of  formation, ionization energy, and electron affinities, use a Born-Haber thermodynamic cycle to calculate lattice energy.
  5. Draw and rank energies of different Lewis resonance structures
  6. Rank and explain the relative acidity of analogous oxyacids.
  7. Use VSEPR theory to predict the geometry of electrons clouds and atoms around an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion.
  8. Explain the use of overlap of atomic orbitals in valence bond theory to explain bonding in covalent substances.
  9. Predict hybridization of atomic orbitals required to explain the observed geometry of molecules and the geometry predicted by VSEPR theory.
  10. Use molecular orbital energy diagrams to explain bonding in covalent molecules.
  11. Predict bond order from molecular orbital diagrams
  12. Define the two main classes of energy, kinetic and potential, and give multiple examples of each. 
  13. Define energy, internal energy, work, heat and their relationships
  14. Cleary distinguish between the universe, the system, and the surroundings
  15. Explain the difference between heat and temperature
  16. Explain verbally and mathematically, the first Law of Thermodynamics.
  17. Write energy equations and draw diagrams which use the First Law of Thermodynamics
  18. Define exothermic, endothermic, and enthalpy
  19. Explain the difference between intensive and extensive properties
  20. Explain the meaning of a state function and give examples.
  21. Explain the difference between constant pressure and constant volume calorimetery.
  22. Explain the difference between ΔE and ΔH
  23. Use the formula ΔE = q + w = q - Pext ΔV , using the correct sign (+ or -) for each term.
  24. Define the heat capacity, specific heat (capacity), and molar heat capacity of a substance.
  25. Calculate the change in enthalpy for a reaction that occurs in a styrofoam cup calorimeter, given the specific heat of water and calorimeter constant, and using energy conservation (ΔE univ = ΔE sys+ ΔE surr =  0)
  26. Use Hess's Law, calculate the change in enthalpy for a reaction.
  27. Define standard enthalpies of formation, and use these in calculating ΔHo .
  28. Define bond energies, and use these in calculating ΔHo
  29. Do mathematical problems using the ideal gas equation: PV = nRT
  30. Explain kinetic molecular theory and how it can be used to explain Charle's, Boyle's and Avogadro's Law.
  31. Understand the implications of the formula:  E avg kin/mol  = (3/2) RT