STUDY GUIDE - TEST 3:
CH123: General Chemistry - Fall 2006
For the third examination, you should be able to:
- Describe the differences between ionic, polar covalent, and nonpolar
- Be able to draw Lewis symbols for simple covalent molecules, and for
molecules with a deficient and expanded octets.
- Explain electronegativity and how it is related to average
bond energies (bond dissociation energies) and average valence electron ionization
- Given heats of formation, ionization energy, and electron
affinities, use a Born-Haber thermodynamic cycle to calculate lattice energy.
- Draw and rank energies of different Lewis resonance
- Rank and explain the relative acidity of analogous
- Use VSEPR theory to predict the geometry of electrons
clouds and atoms around an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion.
- Explain the use of overlap of atomic orbitals in
valence bond theory to explain bonding in covalent substances.
- Predict hybridization of atomic orbitals required to
explain the observed geometry of molecules and the geometry predicted by
- Use molecular orbital energy diagrams to explain
bonding in covalent molecules.
- Predict bond order from molecular orbital diagrams
- Define the two main classes of energy, kinetic and
potential, and give multiple examples of each.
- Define energy, internal energy, work, heat and their
- Cleary distinguish between the universe, the system,
and the surroundings
- Explain the difference between heat and temperature
- Explain verbally and mathematically, the first Law of
- Write energy equations and draw diagrams which use the
First Law of Thermodynamics
- Define exothermic, endothermic, and enthalpy
- Explain the difference between intensive and extensive
- Explain the meaning of a state function and give
- Explain the difference between constant pressure and
constant volume calorimetery.
- Explain the difference between
- Use the formula ΔE
= q + w = q - Pext ΔV
, using the correct sign (+ or -) for each term.
- Define the heat capacity, specific heat (capacity), and
molar heat capacity of a substance.
- Calculate the change in enthalpy for a reaction that
occurs in a styrofoam cup calorimeter, given the specific heat of water and
calorimeter constant, and using energy conservation (ΔE
univ = ΔE
sys+ ΔE surr
- Use Hess's Law, calculate the change in enthalpy for a
- Define standard enthalpies of formation, and use these
in calculating ΔHo
- Define bond energies, and use these in calculating ΔHo
- Do mathematical problems using the ideal gas equation:
PV = nRT
- Explain kinetic molecular theory and how it can be used
to explain Charle's, Boyle's and Avogadro's Law.
- Understand the implications of the formula: E avg
kin/mol = (3/2) RT