CHAPTERS 7-10

For the third examination, you should be able to:

- Describe the differences between ionic, polar covalent, and nonpolar covalent bonds.
- Be able to draw Lewis symbols for simple covalent molecules, and for molecules with a deficient and expanded octets.
- Explain electronegativity and how it is related to average bond energies (bond dissociation energies) and average valence electron ionization energies (AVEIE).
- Given heats of formation, ionization energy, and electron affinities, use a Born-Haber thermodynamic cycle to calculate lattice energy.
- Draw and rank energies of different Lewis resonance structures
- Rank and explain the relative acidity of analogous oxyacids.
- Use VSEPR theory to predict the geometry of electrons clouds and atoms around an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion.
- Explain the use of overlap of atomic orbitals in valence bond theory to explain bonding in covalent substances.
- Predict hybridization of atomic orbitals required to explain the observed geometry of molecules and the geometry predicted by VSEPR theory.
- Use molecular orbital energy diagrams to explain bonding in covalent molecules.
- Predict bond order from molecular orbital diagrams
- Define the two main classes of energy, kinetic and potential, and give multiple examples of each.
- Define energy, internal energy, work, heat and their relationships
- Cleary distinguish between the universe, the system, and the surroundings
- Explain the difference between heat and temperature
- Explain verbally and mathematically, the first Law of Thermodynamics.
- Write energy equations and draw diagrams which use the First Law of Thermodynamics
- Define exothermic, endothermic, and enthalpy
- Explain the difference between intensive and extensive properties
- Explain the meaning of a state function and give examples.
- Explain the difference between constant pressure and constant volume calorimetery.
- Explain the difference between ΔE and ΔH
- Use the formula ΔE
= q + w = q - P
_{ext }ΔV , using the correct sign (+ or -) for each term. - Define the heat capacity, specific heat (capacity), and molar heat capacity of a substance.
- Calculate the change in enthalpy for a reaction that
occurs in a styrofoam cup calorimeter, given the specific heat of water and
calorimeter constant, and using energy conservation (ΔE
_{univ }= ΔE_{ sys}+ ΔE_{surr }= 0) - Use Hess's Law, calculate the change in enthalpy for a reaction.
- Define standard enthalpies of formation, and use these
in calculating ΔH
^{o}. - Define bond energies, and use these in calculating ΔH
^{o} - Do mathematical problems using the ideal gas equation: PV = nRT
- Explain kinetic molecular theory and how it can be used to explain Charle's, Boyle's and Avogadro's Law.
- Understand the implications of the formula: E avg kin/mol = (3/2) RT