REVIEW CONCEPTS: CHEMISTRY 123 - General Chemistry I
WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ATOMS AND MOLECULES
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE: Structure mediates properties
1. Understand the structure of atoms and the differences between the elements. CONCEPTS: Nucleus, protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic number, mass number, average atomic mass, isotopes, orbitals (s,p,d,f), Aufbau principle, electronic configurations.
2. Understand how the electronic structure of the atoms determines the chemical and physical properties of the atoms and elements. CONCEPTS: chemical property, physical property, periodicity, structure of the periodic table, ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic size, ionic size, valence electrons, Lewis dot symbols for atoms
3. Understand from the electronic structure of the atoms how atoms of different elements combine to form molecules with bonds of different polarities. CONCEPTS: Ionic bonds, nonpolar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, electronegativity. (Remember FON, Cl), naming ionic and molecular substances.
4. Draw the correct Lewis structure of covalently bonded molecules. CONCEPTS: nonbonded (lone) pairs, bonded pairs, counting electrons, formal charge, oxidation number, partial positive/negative charge, valency, octet rule, expanded octet, electron deficent structures, multiple bonds, resonance.
5. Predict the geometry of the molecule from the Lewis structure. CONCEPTS: VSEPR theory, geometry electron clouds, geometry atoms, polarity.
6. Understand the valence-bond and molecular orbital model of covalent bonding. CONCEPTS: overlap of atomic orbitals, σ and π bonds, hybridization of orbitals (sp3, sp2, sp), bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals.
8. Predict the chemical properties of the molecule from the types of molecules and their structure: CONCEPTS: chemical equations, strong, weak, and nonelectrolytes, acid/base reactions, precipitation reactions, oxidation/reduction reactions, oxidation numbers, activity series, curved arrows to model reaction mechanisms.
9. Understand the energy changes associated with physical and chemical changes. CONCEPTS: potential and kinetic energy, work (PV), internal energy, enthalpy, exothermic/endothermic reactions, standard enthalpy, standard enthalpy of formation, conservation of energy, First Law of Thermodynamics, bond dissociation energy, Hess's Law, state function.
10. Predict the amounts of reactants and products consumed and produced in a chemical reaction. CONCEPTS: mole, Avogadro's number, balanced chemical equation, stoichiometry, limiting reagent, excess reagent, % composition, empirical formula, solution stoichimetry, molarity, titrations, Law of Mass Conservation.
11. Calculate energy changes in chemical and physical processes. CONCEPTS: Application of Hess's Law, Born-Haber Cycle, First Law Thermodynamics, heats of reactions and formation, calorimetry applications.
12. Calculate properties of gases and gaseous reactions. CONCEPTS: Ideal Gas Laws; stoichiometry of gas reactions.
Key Items in Each Chapter
now how to round answers to the correct number of significant figures
Know how to do unit conversions (dimensional analysis)
Describe the Law of Conservation of Matter, Law of Definite Proportions, Law of Multiple Proportions as applied to chemical reactions
Determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom of an isotope
Name ionic and molecular compounds
Know the difference between nanoscale diagrams of ionic and molecular compounds
Balance chemical equations
Mole calculations: grams to moles to number of atoms/molecules
Stoichiometry: Moles to moles, grams to grams, limiting reactant, solution stoichiometry
Concentrations of solutions: preparation of solutions from weighed amounts of solute and diluting concentrated solutions
Calculate percent composition and empirical formulas
Predict products and balance equations for acid-base, precipitation, and redox reactions
Use activity series to predict products of redox reactions
Understand and explain the significance of the following leading to quantum theory: Particle properties of light; DeBroglie's relationship; Line spectra of atoms; Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle; Schroedinger's wave equations; Pauli Exclusion principle
Determine quantum numbers for the electrons in an atom
Know the shapes of s and p orbitals
Write electron configurations (1s22s2, etc.) and "blanks and arrows" representations
Know and explain periodic variation of atomic radii
Write electron configurations of ions
Rank ions and atoms by ionic radii
Know periodic variation of ionization energy and electron affinity
Explain ionic bonds in terms of transfer of atoms, coulombic forces and structure of ionic compounds
Write formulas for ionic compounds.
Describe energy changes during formation of covalent bond (Figure 7.2)
Know periodic variation of electronegativity
For a given molecule: Draw Lewis Dot structure; Determine electronic and molecular geometry; Determine if bonds are polar; Determine if molecule is polar; Determine hybridization of an atom
Fill out MO diagrams
Know meaning of thermodynamic standard state
Calculate ΔH: From calorimetry; Hess' Law (using equations; enthalpies of formation; bond energies
From sign of ΔH determine if a reaction is endothermic or exothermic
Use the ideal gas law to calculate volume, pressure, temperature or number of moles
Describe gases using the kinetic molecular theory