ammotiva.wmf (2870 bytes)Motivation and Emotion


               - causes of behavior
               - forces acting upon or within
               - initiate and direct behavior


        A. "Push" theories - Hull's Drive reduction theory

                    - homeostasis
                    - drive
                    - problems with the theory

        B.  "Pull" theories - Incentive theory

                    - reinforcement
                   - problems with payment?
                            - intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation
                            - behavioral contrast

        C.  Range of human motivations - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

                    - 7 levels of needs:  physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, self actualization
                    - assumptions of the theory:  progress through the stages
                    - problems with the theory?

Thought question: Compare and contrast Maslow's Hierarchy of needs with drive reduction and incentive theories of motivation.  What are the assumptions of each of these classes of theories?  What factors are proposed to account for human behavior in each?  Which do you think makes the most sense for various types of human motivations - e.g. for hunger, for sex, for achievement motivation?   Explain.


            A.   Homeostatic theories of hunger

                        - glucostatic hypothesis
                        - lipostatic hypothesis

B.  Cues and Culture?
            - internal and external cue responsiveness?
                    (French study.... portion size and plates)
                    (Schacter: internal - external theory of obesity - Note: cause or effect?)
            - cultural ideals and eating disorders

IV.  SEX:  e.g. sexual orientation

             A.  Environmental theories
            B.  Biological theories
            C.  LeVay research
                    - cause/effect?

Thought question:  How might sexual orientation be viewed differently if looked at from the perspective of "push" versus "pull" theories?  Discuss the research of LeVay being sure to describe what was found regarding sexual orientation and potential limitations with drawing causal conclusions from the research.  With regard to the issue of push versus pull, what do YOU think that the data suggest about sexual orientation?   Explain.

V.  EMOTIONS - NOTE:  Happiness info will be VERY useful for final assignment (coming up in next section.... stay tuned)

    A.  Components of emotion:  physiological, cognitive, behavioral
    B.  Physiological component
             - describe the role of the autonomic nervous system in emotional arousal
             - discuss the role of the amygdala in emotion
    C.  Behavioral
             - culture
- display and interpretation of emotions:  universal?
                 - display rules for emotion:  culturally bound?
             - facial feedback hypothesis 

     D.  Theories of emotion:  What comes first, the chicken or the egg?

    D.  Cognitive
             - Schacter's two-factor theory of emotion
            E.  General theories of emotion
                    - James-Lange theory
                    - Cannon-Bard theory

Thought question:  Compare and contrast the James-Lange theory with the Cannon-Bard theory.  What do each suggest about the relationship between our subjective experience (thoughts, feelings) of emotional stimuli   with our outward responses (physiological, behavioral) to emotional stimuli?   Relate your discussion to the three components of emotion.  Finally, how does Schacters two factor theory relate the components?  Which is most consistent with YOUR experience of emotions?  Explain.