Concepts of Biology (BIOL115) - Dr. S.G. Saupe (; Biology Department, College of St. Benedict/St. John's University, Collegeville, MN 56321

Review Exam #5 - Saupe Section

Note on Grades:
    If you want to see your grades, please contact me.  I will be happy to show you what scores I have recorded, which assignments you have completed, etc.

     Our final exam will be held on Tuesday, Dec. 14th, at 5:00 pm in Pengl 369.  The exam will consist of approximately 70% new material and 30% comprehensive questions (from the entire semester).  Like the other exams, it will be a mixture of multiple choice questions and other style questions.  The new material includes transcription, translation and evolution (Ch 22).  Essentially everything we covered in lecture, including various worksheets & handouts, is "fair game."  Bring a pencil.  This exam is worth 18% of your final grade.  To study for the comprehensive section, I suggest: (a) reading the summary at the end of each chapter; (b) reviewing old exams; (c) reviewing your notes; (d) checking out the topics listed below.  Good luck with all of your exams!

    I encourage you to answer all of the questions at the end of each chapter in the text, do the quizzes on-line or in the CD and check out my on-line study guides (transcription/translation; evolution).

On-Line Quizzes
    You should complete 17 & 22 by 12:00 pm, Study Day, Dec 13th.

Transcription & Translation:
     I have posted some online notes that might be of assistance.  You are responsible for everything in the concepts/ideas in the Molecular Biology of Blood worksheet.  In addition, you should understand the basic ideas in the Sex Hormone sheet.  You don't have to turn these in for grading as it says on the handouts.

Some terms/concepts they should know:

  • archipelago

  • bottleneck effect

  • catastrophism

  • coevolution

  • evolution

  • extant

  • extinct

  • fitness (reproductive)

  • founder effect

  • genetic drift

  • homologous vs. analogous

  • structure

  • hybrid

  • individual

  • macroevolution

  • microevolution

  •  mutation

  •  natural selection

  • paradigm

  • population

  • selection � directional

  • selection � disruptive (diversifying)

  • selection � stabilizing

  • special creation

  • speciation

  • species

  • uniformitarianism

  • variation

  • vestigial (rudimentary) organ

 Some Questions for Thought and Study:

  1. Why is evolution important?

  2. Discuss how each of the following provides evidence for evolution: comparative anatomy, embryology, geology, paleontology, breeding.

  3. What is a homologous structure?  Analogous structure?  Vestigial organ?  What evolutionary conclusion can be drawn from these structures?  Give examples of each.

  4. Discuss grasses in Wales, or crabs and periwinkles or peppered moths or antibiotic resistance in microorganisms as examples of evolutionary change. 

  5. What does Darwin mean by fittest?

  6. What is adaptation?  Why is it important?

  7. Why is it true that organisms are never perfectly adapted?

  8. Discuss the significance of Dobzhansky's quote at the beginning of this guide.

  9. Stephen Gould argues that the proof of evolution is revealed by the imperfections of nature.  Using an example such as the Panda's thumb, explain what he means.

  10. Evolution is a testable, falsifiable theory.  Explain using an example.

  11. Explain the fallacy expressed by ex-President Reagan's quote below.  Contrast it with the quote by Darwin.

  12. Why do males have nipples?

  13. Explain why, from an evolutionary perspective, males & females have organisms.

  14. There is a separation of the site of organism and the site of intercourse in human females.  Explain why, from a strictly adaptationist viewpoint this separation is unexpected.  Then, explain why this situation exists.

  15. Can you define adaptation?  Can you give an example?

  16. Gould cites three major pieces of evidence in support of evolution.  What are they?  Explain.  (hint:  direct observation, imperfections, fossils).

  17. Check out the questions at the end of the chapters.

  18. Do you agree with Tom Robbin's description of evolution?

  19. What is the equation for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model for evolution?  Can you work Hardy-Weinberg problems?  Bring a calculator to the exam.

  20. Identify the criteria that must be met for the Hardy-Weinberg model to be satisfied.  Describe the result if one or more of these criteria are violated.

  21. Identify five factors/mechanisms that result in evolutionary change.

  22. Define:  migration, genetic drift, and mutation.  What is the function and/or result of each?

  23. Compare and contrast the Bottleneck effect and Founder effect.  Give an example of each.

  24. What the three major types of natural selection?  Give examples of each.  Identify the environmental conditions (i.e.., stable vs. changing) for each.

  25. Can you identify each of the following individuals:  Buffon, Lamarck, Wallace, Darwin, Malthus, Fitzroy, Hardy-Weinberg; Dobzhansky.

 You may want to check out my on-line notes, also: 

You should take a look at:


Some Terms & Concepts to Consider for the Comprehensive Section:

  • covalent bonding

  • element

  • isotopes

  • pH

  • properties of water

  • diffusion

  • ATP

  • chemical reactions

  • enzymes

  • major classes of biological compounds:  carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

  • major cell structures

  • ribosomes

  • prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells

  • how enzymes work

  • active site  

  • allosteric effects

  • membrane permeability and structure

  • active transport

  • facilitated diffusion

  • potential vs. kinetic energy

  • entropy

  • electron transport chain


  • 1st law & 2nd laws of thermodynamics

  • acetyl CoA

  • Kreb's cycle

  • glycolysis

  • oxidative phosphorylation

  • anaerobic/aerobic

  • chlorophyll

  • photosystems I&II 

  • visible light

  • ATP synthase

  • heterotrophs


  • carbon fixation

  • Rubisco

  • Calvin cycle

  • action spectrum of photosynthesis

  • cell cycle

  • meiosis/mitosis

  • phenotype

  • homologous chromosomes

  • ploidy

  • allele

  • homozygous 

  • dominance

  • heterozygous

  • probability


  • independent assortment

  • linked genes

  • crossing over

  • experimental evidence for DNA central role as the genetic material

  • DNA & RNA composition and structure

  • Chargaff's rules

  • DNA replication

  • 5' to 3' direction                   

  • helicase

  • DNA polymerase

  • ligase

  • Okazaki fragments

  • leading/lagging strand

  • transcription

  • translation

  • mRNA synthesis

  • tRNA, rRNA, mRNA

  • codon

  • gene

  • the genetic code: redundant, unambiguous, universal

  • posttranscriptional processing

  • exons & introns

  • one gene one polypeptide


Some other questions to ponder:    Can you.......

  1. draw and describe the structure of the plasma membrane?

  2. describe the structure of DNA in a single strand and in the double helical form.

  3. describe generally the overall process of gene expression.  What are the main features of the process and how is a polypeptide product related to a gene?

  4. describe generally the process of photosynthesis, including the light-dependent and light-independent reactions.

  5. draw pictures and label them to explain the phases of mitosis.  Include an explanation of the process in words.

  6. compare and contrast the events of mitosis and meiosis.

  7. choose one cellular organelle, draw it, and describe its functions and their relation to the life of the cell.

  8. choose one of the three main metabolic cycles we discussed -- glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, or electron transport -- and describe it:  location, reactants & products, general function, ATP yield.


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Last updated: December 09, 2004     � Copyright by SG Saupe / URL: