Introduction to Cell & Molecular Biology (BIOL121) - Dr. S.G. Saupe (; Biology Department, College of St. Benedict/St. John's University, Collegeville, MN 56321

Study Guide:  Cell Division

Required Readings:  Chapter 15 & 9.4

Goal of the Unit:  The goal of this unit is to provide an introduction to the process by which cells divide.

Important Terms and Concepts: (can you use them conversationally?  Can you create mini‑dialogues with these terms?  How about making an audio recording using each in a sentence?  Or make a concept map?)

  • 2N, N

  • allele 

  • anaphase

  • asexual reproduction

  • autosome

  • binary fission

  • centriole

  • centromere

  • chiasma

  • chromatid

  • chromatin

  • colchicine

  • crossing over

  • cytokinesis

  • diploid

  • eukaryotic

  • fertilization

  • G1, G2, S

  • gene

  • haploid

  • HeLa cells

  • homologous chromosome

  • independent assortment

  • interphase

  • karyotype

  • kinetochore


  • meiosis

  • metaphase

  • mitosis                      

  • prokaryotic

  • prophase

  • sex chromosome

  • sexual reproduction

  • spindle

  • synapsis

  • telophase

  • tetrad

  • zygote


Some General Study Tips:  The following are a few tips for preparing for the next exam.

  1. Make a sketch of a cell (2n = 6) dividing by mitosis & meiosis

  2. Make a table comparing and contrasting meiosis and mitosis

  3. Sketch out non‑disjunction of sex chromosomes during meiosis and predict the possible offspring. 

  4. Make a concept map for cell division, mitosis, meiosis (or any other topic)

  5. Draw the general sexual life cycle

Caution:  The material in this and the next few units is not readily "crammable."  I encourage you spend some time with this material prior to "exam‑eve".

Learning Objectives:  Upon completion of this unit you should be able to:

  1. describe how a bacterial cell divides

  2. describe the difference between haploid and diploid.  Provide examples of each.

  3. describe the phases of mitosis, the events occurring during each and the significance of this process.

  4. describe the phases of meiosis, the events occurring during each and the significance of this process.

  5. indicate when, where and why meiosis and mitosis occur in humans

  6. compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.  How are they similar?  How do they differ?

  7. describe the cell cycle and the events occurring during this process.

  8. relate the cell cycle to mitosis and meiosis.

  9. predict the offspring resulting from the fertilization of a gamete produced by the non‑disjunction of sex chromosome during either meiosis I or II in both males and females and normally produced gametes.

  10. What is a Barr body?

  11. Sketch the following mosquito cells (2n=6).  For each indicate whether the cell is haploid or diploid, the chromosome number, and number of DNA molecules present.
         egg cell in prophase I
         abdomen cell in interphase
         egg cell in metaphase II
         tongue cell in anaphase. 

  12. distinguish between centrosome, centriole, centromere, chromosome, and chromatid

  13. describe the typical sexual life cycle including the following: meiosis, fertilization, haploid, diploid, gametes, sperm, eggs, 2N, N

  14. describe the process of spermatogenesis; oogenesis; and indicate how oogenesis differs from spermatogenesis (not on exam '06)

  15. indicate the sex chromosome composition of a normal male and female, and individuals with Turner's Down's, Klinefelter's and Triplo‑X syndromes.

  16. describe the procedure used to prepare a karyotype.  Explain the role of colchicine in the process and why white bloods cells but not red ones are used for the procedure.

A Non‑Disjunction Question
Assume that a non‑disjunction of the sex chromosomes occurs during meiosis I in a male.  Further assume that these sperm fertilize normally produced eggs.  List the genotypes (e.g., XY, XX, XXX), phenotypes (i.e., normal or name of disorder), whether male or female, # chromosomes in the fertilized zygote, and the probability of the occurrence for all possible offspring.  Note: not all rows in the table will necessarily be used. 

Genotype Phenotype Sex Chromosome # Probability
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Last updated: July 14, 2009     � Copyright by SG Saupe