tree-logo.gif (7741 bytes) Plant Taxonomy (BIOL308)  -  Stephen G. Saupe, Ph.D.; Biology Department, College of St. Benedict/St. John's University, Collegeville, MN 56321;;

References & Resources

  1. Textbooks
  2. MN General ID
  3. MN - Wildflowers
  4. MN - Trees
  5. CSB/SJU Media
  6. Societies


  1.  Textbooks (menu)
  • Airy-Shaw, H. K. 1978.  Willis' Dictionary of Flowering Plants and Ferns. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.
  • Allkin, R. and F. A. Bisby. 1984. Databases in Systematics. Academic Press, NY.
  • Baumgardt, J.P. 1982. How to Identify Flowering Plant Families. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
  • Benson, L. 1953. Plant Classification. DC Heath, Lexington, MA.
  • Cronquist, A. 1988. Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants. New York Botanical Gardens, Bronx, NY.
  • Crisci, JV, JD McInerney, P McWelty.  1993.  Order & Diversity in the Living World:  Teaching Taxonomy and Systematics in Schools.  National Association of Biology Teachers, Reston, VA.
  • Cronquist, A. 1992. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia Univ Press, NY.
  • Cullen, J. 2006.  Practical Plant Identification:  Including a Key to Native and Cultivated Flowering Plant Families in North Temperate Regions.  Cambridge University Press, NY.
  • Davis, P. H. and J. Cullen. 1989. The Identification of Flowering Plant Families. Third Edition. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Davis, P. and V. Heywood. 1973. Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Robert Krieger Publ. Co., NY.
  • Harrington, H. D. and L. W. Durrell. How to Identify Plants. Swallow Press, Chicago.
  • Harris, J and M. W. Harris. Plant Identification Terminology. Spring Lake Publishers, Payson, UT
  • Heywood, V. (ed). 1993. Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford Univ. Pres, Oxford.
  • Heywood, V. H. and D. M. Moore. 1984. Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy. Academic Press, NY.
  • Hickey, M. and C. J. King. 1988. 100 Families of Flowering Plants. 2nd edn. Cambridge Univ. Press, NY.
  • Hillis, DM, C Moritz, BK Mable, eds. 1996. Molecular Systematics. Sinauer, MA.
  • Holmes, Sandra. 1983. Outline of Plant Classification. Longman, London.
  • Jones, Samuel B. and A. E. Luchsinger. 1986. Plant Systematics. 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, NY.
  • Judd, WS, CC Campbell, EA Kellogg, PF Stevens.  1999.  Plant Systematics.  Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
  • Kramer, K.U. and P.S.Green. 1990. Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Vol. 1. Springer, NY.
  • Kubitzki, K., V. Bittrich, and J.G.Rohwer. 1990. Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Dicotyledons, Magnolid, Hamamelid and Carophyllid Families. Vol. 2. Springer, NY.
  • Jeffry, C. 1982. An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy. Cambridge Univ. Press, NY.
  • Lawrence, G.H.M. 1951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. Macmillan Co., NY.
  • Mabberley, D. J. 1987. The Plant Book. Cambridge Univ. Press, NY.
  • Pankhurst, Richard J. 1992. Practical Taxonomic Computing.
  • Porter, C. L. 1967. Taxonomy of Flowering Plants. W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco.
  • Radford, AE et al. 1974. Vascular Plant Systematics. Harper & Row, NY.
  • Radford, A. E. 1986. Fundamentals of Plant Systematics. Harper & Row, NY.
  • Smith, J. 1977.  Vascular Plant Families. Mad River Press, CA.
  • Stace, C. A.1989. Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics. 2nd ed. Edward Arnold, London.
  • Stevens, Peter F. 1994. The Development of Biological Systematics. Columbia Univ. Press, NY.
  • Stuessy, Tod F. 1990. Plant Taxonomy. Columbia Univ. Press, NY.
  • Stuessy, Tod F. 1994. Case Studies in Plant Taxonomy. Columbia University Press, NY.
  • Walters, D. R. and D. J. Keil. 1995. Vascular Plant Taxonomy. 4th ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing, Dubuque, IA.
  • Wood, Jr. Carroll. 1973. A Student's Atlas of Flowering Plants: Some Dicotyledons of Eastern North America. Harper & Row, Inc.
  • Woodland, D. W. 1999. Contemporary Plant Systematics. 3rd ed. Andrews Univ Press, Berrien Springs, MI.
  • Zomlefer, W. B. 1994. Guide to Flowering Plant Families. Univ. of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

2. Minnesota - General Identification: (menu)

  • MN DNR Listing of Publications (a few are listed below)
    • Minnesota's Native Vegetation: A Key to Natural Communities
    • Minnesota's Native Plants, Selected Books
    • Minnesota Natural History, Selected Books
    • Minnesota's List of Natural Communities
    • Minnesota's List of Endangered, Threatened, and Special Concern Species
    • Minnesota Dwarf Trout Lily, an Endangered Minnesota Wildflower
    • Natural Heritage, Northern Tallgrass Prairie. Foldout brochure
    • Natural Vegetation of Minnesota at the Time of the Public Land Survey 1847-1907, Biological Report Number 1.
    • Minnesota's Bearing Tree Database
    • Preserving Wild Ginseng in Minnesota
    • Leedy's Roseroot, a Cliffside Glacial Relict
    • Orchids of Minnesota
    • Prairie Bush Clover
    • Western Prairie Fringed Orchid, a Threatened Midwestern Prairie Plant
  • Field Guide to the Native Plant Communities of Minnesota - The Laurentian Mixed Forest, The Eastern Broadleaf Forest, and The Prairie Parkland and Tallgrass Aspen Parklands Provinces.  All three available from  For more info, visit the DNR plant publications website.
  • Cofell, Lorraine Westrup. 1977.  A Study of the Vegetation in the Upland Forest of St. John's Abbey and University.  Collegeville, MN  84 pp.
  • Coffin, B & L Pfanmuller, ed. 1988.  Minnesota's Endangered Flora and Fauna. University of MN Press, Minneapolis.
  • Curtis, JT.  1974.  The Vegetation of Wisconsin.  University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
  • Department of Natural Resources. 1995. A Guide to Minnesota's Scientific and Natural Areas. Scientific and Natural Areas Program, St. Paul.
  • Eggers, S. D. and D. M. Reed. 1988. Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin. US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul.
  • Fassett, Norman C. 1959. Spring Flora of Wisconsin. Univ. of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
  • Fernald, M. Gray's Manual of Botany.
  • Flora of North America. Oxford University Press, New York. (
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 2nd edn. New York Botanical Garden.
  • Gleason, H. C. 1968. New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern U.S. and Canada. Three Volumes. D. Van Nostrand Co., NJ.
  • Great Plains Flora Association.  1986.  Flora of the Great Plains.  University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Lakela, Olga. 1965. A Flora of Northeastern Minnesota. Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Morley, T. 1969. Spring Flora of Minnesota. Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Moyle, J B. 1960. Aids for Field Identification of Some Common Minnesota Plant Groups. 1960. MN Department of Natural Resources.
  • Nature Conservancy, The. 1980. Prairies, Woods and Islands. A Guide to the Minnesota Preserves of the Nature Conservancy. Nature Conservancy, Minneapolis.
  • Ownbey, G. and T. Morley. 1991. Vascular Plants of Minnesota: A Checklist and Atlas. Univ. of Minnesota Press.
  • Rydberg, Per Axel.  1932.  Flora of the Prairies and Plains of Central North America.  The Science Press Printing Company, Lancaster.
  • Stevens, O. A. 1963. Handbook of North Dakota Plants. North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, Fargo.
  • Steyermark, Julian.  1963.  Flora of Missouri.  The Iowa State University Press, Ames.
  • Tester, J. R. 1995. Minnesota's Natural Heritage. An Ecological Perspective. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Van Bruggen, T. 1976. Vascular Plants of South Dakota. The Iowa State Univ Press, Ames.

3.  Minnesota Wildflowers (menu)

  • Coffey, T. 1994. The History and Folklore of North American Wildflowers.
  • Courtenay, Booth & J. H. Zimmerman. 1978. Wildflowers and Weeds. Fireside Books.
  • Edsall. 1985. Roadside Plants and Flowers. Univ. of Wisconsin Press.
  • Embertson and Conrader. 1979. Pods: Wildflowers and Weeds in Their Final Beauty. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • Ladd, D. 1995. Tallgrass Prairie Wildflowers. The Nature Conservancy & Falcon Press, Helena, MT.
  • Kirt, R. 1995. Prairie Plants of the Midwest: Identification and Ecology. Stipes, Champaign, IL.
  • Magley and Dowden, 1992. Minnesota Wildflowers: A Children's Guide to the State's Most Common Flowers. Falcon Press.
  • Moyle, John B. Northern Non-Woody Plants. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis.
  • Moyle, J. and Moyle. 1977. Northland Wild Flowers: A Guide for the Minnesota Region. Univ. of Minnesota Press.
  • Newcomb, L. 1977. Newcomb's Wildflower Guide. Little, Brown and Company, NY.
  • Ownbey, G. 1971. Common Wild Flowers of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Peterson, R. T. & M. McKenny. A Field Guide to Wildflowers of Northeastern and North-central North American. Houghton Mifflin.
  • Runkel and Roosa. 1989. Wildflowers of the Tallgrass Prairie: The Upper Midwest. Iowa State University Press.
  • Semple, J. GS Ringuis, JJ Zhang.  1999.  The Goldenrods of Ontario.  University of Waterloo Biology Series 39: 1-90.  ($15.00 + $5.00 s&h)
  • Smith, W. 1993. Orchids of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Upham, Warrren. 1884. Catalogue of the Flora of Minnesota, including its phaenogamous and vascular cryptogamous plants, indigenous, naturalized, and adventive. Johnson, Smith and Harrison, Minneapolis.
  • Vance, Jowsey & McLean. 1984. Wildflowers of the Northern Great Plains. Univ. of Minnesota Press.
  • Wright, Jr., HE., BA Coffin & NE Aaseng, eds.  1992.  Patterned Peatlands of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis

4. Minnesota Trees (menu)

  • Clements, Frederic E., C. Otto Rosendahl, Frederic K. Butters. 1912. Minnesota Trees and Shrubs. The University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Coombes, Allen J. 1992. Trees. Eyewitness Handbooks. Dorling Kindersley, Inc., New York.
  • Dirr, M. 1978. Photographic Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Stipes, Champaign, IL.
  • Dirr, M. 1990. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. 4th ed. Stipes, Champaign, IL.
  • Dirr, M. 1997. Dirr's Hardy Trees and Shrubs. Timber Press, Portland.
  • Farrar, John Laird. 1995. Trees of the Northern United States and Canada. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
  • Harlow, W. M. Fruit Key and Twig Key to Trees and Shrubs. Dover.
  • Hosie, RC. 1975. Native Trees of Canada. 7th ed. Canadian Forestry Service.
  • Leopold, D.J., W.C. McCombs, R.N. Miller. 1998. Trees of the Central Hardwood Forests of North America. Timber Press, Portland.
  • Muenscher, W. C. 1950. Keys to Woody Plants. Comstock Publ., Ithaca, NY.
  • Rathke, D.M. Minnesota trees. MN Extension Service, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
  • Rosendahl, Carl O. 1955. Trees and Shrubs of the Upper Midwest. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Severin, Charles. 1980. A Key to the Woody Plants of Minnesota. St. Mary's College, Winona.
  • Stephens, H. A. 1973. Woody Plants of the North Central Plains. The University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Stidd, B. and R.D.Henry. 1995. Key to Common Woody Landscape Plants in the Midwest. Stipes Publishing, Champaign, IL.
  • Symonds, George W. D. 1963. The Shrub Identification Book. William Morrow & Company, New York.
  • Symonds, George W. D. 1958. The Tree Identification Book. Quill, New York.

5. Media (at CSB/SJU) (menu)

  • Edible Wild Plants - video (QK 98.5.A1)
  • Sexual Encounters of the Floral Kind (pollination) (QK 926.S49)
  • Roadside Plants of Central Minnesota - slide set (QK 112.W4)
  • Prairie Plants of Central Minnesota - slide set (QK 938.P7 W4
  • Woodland Plants of Central Minnesota - slide set (QK 938.E6 W4)

6. Professional Societies (check out the web sites) (menu)

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Last updated:  08/12/2008 / � Copyright by SG Saupe