Introduction to Cell & Molecular Biology (BIOL121) - Dr. S.G. Saupe (; Biology Department, College of St. Benedict/St. John's University, Collegeville, MN 56321

Review: Exam #4 (Final Exam; Fall 2007)

Note on Grades:
    If you want to see your grades, please contact me.  I will be happy to show you what scores I have recorded, which assignments you have completed, etc.

     Our final exam will be held on Tuesday, Dec. 18 from 8 - 10:00 AM in PENGL 369 (9:40 section) and PENGL 373 (1:00 section).  The exam will consist of approximately 80% new material and 20% comprehensive questions (from the entire semester).  Like the other exams, it will be a mixture of multiple choice questions and "other" questions.  The new material includes DNA structure, replication, transcription, translation, gene regulation, mutation.  Essentially everything we covered in lecture, including various worksheets & handouts, is "fair game."  If there is material in the textbook that we didn't mention in class you can ignore it.   Please bring a pencil to the exam.  This exam is worth 20% of your final grade. 

    I encourage you to answer all of the questions at the end of each chapter in the text, do the quizzes on-line or in the CD and check out my on-line study guides (Molecular Genetics Study Guide).  You may also want to view that animations of replication, transcription and translation that are posted in our public folder as well as the DNA extraction videos (DNA isolation available at: and the companion to this video  For more info about DNA and x-ray diffraction, check out .  In fact, the Dolan site ( has lots of fabulous info about the topics we�ve been discussing.  Especially check out their links for �Timeline� and �Code�.

History of DNA discovery, DNA structure, Replication:
    I have posted some online notes for this material.  In addition, in class I handed out some Presidential Notes for this material and there is an online Concept Map.  This material is covered in chapter 11. 

Central Dogma, Transcription & Translation:
     I have posted some online notes for transcription/translation and mutations in general that might be of assistance.  I also provided a lecture outline for some of this material.  Don't forget the Molecular Biology of Blood, Sex Hormone,and Gink & Go in the Kitchen worksheets/exercises.  This material is covered in chapters 12, 13, and parts of 14.   

Gene regulation:
        I provided a set of "Presidential Notes." This material is covered in chapter 13.  

Comprehensive Section:  To study for the comprehensive section, I suggest: (a) reading the summary at the end of each chapter; (b) reviewing old exams; (c) reviewing your notes; (d) reviewing the TOP FIVE lists we prepared; and (e) checking out the topics/concepts in the list below.  

  • covalent bonding

  • element

  • isotopes

  • pH

  • properties of water

  • diffusion

  • ATP

  • chemical reactions

  • enzymes

  • major classes of biological compounds:  carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

  • major cell structures

  • ribosomes

  • prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells

  • how enzymes work

  • active site  

  • allosteric effects

  • membrane permeability and structure

  • active transport

  • facilitated diffusion

  • potential vs. kinetic energy

  • entropy

  • electron transport chain


  • 1st & 2nd laws of thermodynamics

  • acetyl CoA

  • Kreb's cycle

  • glycolysis

  • oxidative phosphorylation

  • anaerobic/aerobic

  • chlorophyll

  • photosystems I&II 

  • visible light

  • ATP synthase

  • heterotrophs


  • carbon fixation

  • Rubisco

  • Calvin cycle

  • action spectrum of photosynthesis

  • cell cycle

  • meiosis/mitosis

  • phenotype

  • homologous chromosomes

  • ploidy

  • allele

  • homozygous 

  • dominance

  • heterozygous

  • probability


  • independent assortment

  • linked genes

  • crossing over

  • experimental evidence for DNA's central role as the genetic material

  • DNA & RNA composition and structure

  • Chargaff's rules

  • DNA replication

  • 5' to 3' direction                   

  • helicase

  • DNA polymerase

  • ligase

  • Okazaki fragments

  • leading/lagging strand

  • transcription

  • translation

  • mRNA synthesis

  • tRNA, rRNA, mRNA

  • codon

  • gene

  • the genetic code: redundant, unambiguous, universal

  • posttranscriptional processing

  • exons & introns

  • one gene - one polypeptide


Some other questions to ponder:    Can you.......

  1. draw and describe the structure of the plasma membrane?

  2. describe generally the process of photosynthesis and respiration

  3. draw pictures and label them to explain the phases of mitosis or meiosis.  Include an explanation of the process in words.

  4. compare and contrast the events of mitosis and meiosis.

  5. draw a typical eukaryotic cell including the major organelles

  6. solve simple genetics problems

Good luck with all of your exams!

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Last updated: July 14, 2009     � Copyright by SG Saupe