Autumn.wmf (12088 bytes)Introduction to Organismal Biology (BIOL221) - Dr. S.G. Saupe; Biology Department, College of St. Benedict/St. John's University, Collegeville, MN 56321;;

Study Guide & Review for Animal Transport



I. Goal:  The goal of this unit is to provide a basic understanding of how animals transport materials

II. Reading(s):  Chapter 42.1-3

III.  ObjectivesUpon completion of this unit you should be able to:

  1. Describe the functions of the transport/circulatory system in animals
  2. Explain how a gastrovascular cavity functions in part as a circulatory system.
  3. Compare and contrast open and closed circulatory systems. List the three basic components common to both systems.
  4. Discuss the advantages of open and closed circulatory systems.
  5. Using diagrams, compare and contrast the circulatory systems of fish, amphibians, and mammals or birds.
  6. Distinguish between pulmonary and systemic circuits and explain the functions of each.
  7. Compare the hearts of vertebrates with double circulation to those of vertebrates with a single circuit.
  8. Define a cardiac cycle, distinguish between systole and diastole, and explain what causes the first and second heart sounds.
  9. List the heart valves in a human heart, describe their location, and explain their functions.
  10. Define heart murmur and explain its cause.
  11. Describe the location and function of the sinoatrial (SA) node of the heart.
  12. Describe the origin and pathway of the impulses from the SA node in the normal human heart.
  13. Explain how the pace of the SA node can be modulated by nerves, hormones, body temperature, and exercise.
  14. Relate the structures of capillaries, arteries, and veins to their functions.
  15. Explain why blood flow through capillaries is substantially slower than blood flow through arteries and veins.
  16. Define blood pressure and describe how it is measured.
  17. Define cardiac output and describe two factors that influence it.
  18. Explain how blood returns to the heart, even though it must sometimes travel from the lower extremities against gravity.
  19. Explain how blood flow through capillary beds is regulated.
  20. Define cardiac cycle and explain the role of the sinoatrial node.
  21. Relate the structures of capillaries, arteries, and veins to their function.
  22. Define blood pressure and cardiac output and describe two factors that influence each.
  23. Explain how osmotic pressure and hydrostatic pressure regulate the exchange of fluid and solutes across the capillary walls.

IV.  Common Terms/Concepts (can you use the following terms/concepts conversationally?)

  • Atrioventricular valve
  • Atrium
  • Capillary
  • Circuit � pulmonary
  • Circuit � systemic
  • Closed circulatory system
  • EKG
  • Hemolymph
  • Node � AV
  • Node � SA
  • Open circulatory system
  • Semilunar valve
  • Ventricle

V. Activities (Some learning activities and tips for studying)

  1. Good animation of EKG's
  2. Check out the tips in the Plant Structure/Function Study Guide
  3. Make a concept map for the unit

VI. Questions
: After completing the activities, write any question(s) that you still have concerning the objectives or that pertain to related areas.  Check the text or other sources for the answers.  Or, contact me!


VII. Application: Write one or more ways in which you can immediately apply this information to your daily life.


VIII. Assessment: Meet with one or more members of the class to help assess that you have attained the objective and to help deepen your understanding of the material. Answer the questions at the end of the chapters. Write your own exam questions. Visit the text book web site.

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Last updated: February 19, 2009        � Copyright by SG Saupe