Autumn.wmf (12088 bytes)Introduction to Organismal Biology (BIOL221) - Dr. S.G. Saupe; Biology Department, College of St. Benedict/St. John's University, Collegeville, MN 56321;;

Study Guide & Review for Animal Structure & Function



I. Goal:  The goal of this unit is to provide a basic understanding of animal structure and function.


II. Reading(s):  Chapter 40 (pp 852-860) 

III.  ObjectivesUpon completion of this unit you should be able to: 

  1. Define anatomy and physiology.

  2. Explain how physical laws constrain animal form (p 853).

  3. Use examples to illustrate how the size and shape of an animal�s body affect its interactions with the environment (p853-4).

  4. Describe the challenges and benefits that come with complex animal form (p 854).

  5. Define the terms tissue, organ, and organ system.  Give examples of each.

  6. Name the four main categories of tissues.

  7. Name the cells types that make up nervous tissue.  Identify the function of nervous tissue.

  8. Name the three major cells types that make up muscle tissue.  Compare and contrast their structure and function.

  9. Identify the functions of epithelial tissues. 

  10. Compare and contrast the shape and function of the following epithelial cells:  cuboidal, columnar, and squamous.

  11. Explain the difference between a stratified and simple epithelium.

  12. Which epithelium is most likely to:  (a) be on a surface subject to abrasion, (b) line blood vessels � stratified or simple epithelium?  Explain.

  13. Which is most likely line blood vessels � simple or stratified? Explain.

  14. Explain what it means that epithelial tissues are �polarized.�  Why does this occur?  Use apical surface, basal surface, basal lamina in your answer.

  15. Define the main feature and general purpose of connective tissues.

  16. Describe the structure/function of the three major types of protein fibers that comprise connective tissues; collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers.

  17. Describe the strcutrure/function of the following connective tissues:  Loose connective tissue; Cartilage; Fibrous connective tissue; Adipose tissue; Blood; Bone; Muscle tissue.

  18. Describe the functions of macrophages and fibroblasts within connective tissue.

  19. Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems with respect to specificity of target cells and speed and duration of response.

IV.  Common Terms/Concepts (can you use the following terms/concepts conversationally?)

  • Anatomy
  • Axon
  • Cell body
  • dendrite
  • Epithelium
  • Glial
  • Interstitial fluid
  • Neuron
  • Physiology
  • squamous
  • stratified
  • Striated

V. Activities (Some learning activities and tips for studying):

  1. Check out the tips in the Plant Structure/Function Study Guide
  2. Make a concept map for the unit

VI. Questions
: After completing the activities, write any question(s) that you still have concerning the objectives or that pertain to related areas.  Check the text or other sources for the answers.  Or, contact me!


VII. Application: Write one or more ways in which you can immediately apply this information to your daily life.


VIII. Assessment: Meet with one or more members of the class to help assess that you have attained the objective and to help deepen your understanding of the material. Answer the questions at the end of the chapters. Write your own exam questions. Visit the text book web site.

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Last updated: January 16, 2009        � Copyright by SG Saupe