Biochemistry Online: An Approach Based on Chemical Logic

Biochemistry Online


B:  More Complex Carbohydrates


Learning Goals/Objectives for Chapter 3B:  After class and this reading, students will be able to

  • state the differences between the homopolysaccharides glycogen, starch cellulose, and chitin and those with dissacharide repeat units (glycosoaminoglycans)
  • draw cartoon models of complex oligosaccharides such as peptidoglycans of bacterial cell walls, N and O linked glycoproteins, and proteoglycans showing the linkage of protein and CHO
  • describe the role of protein and cell surface CHO in binding and biological function
  • given diagrams of leukocyte and endothelial cells interactions, describe the role of selectins, selectin ligands, integrins and cellular adhesion molecules in immune cell/blood vessel interactions.

This chapter on complex carbohydrates (glycans/glycoconjugates) will review those features that are deemed especially important for a one semester course dealing with structure and function of biomolecules.

B8.  General Links and References

CHO Web Sites

Sweet:   a program for constructing 3D models (unfornuately using Java) of saccharides from their sequences using standard nomenclature.

Textbook mistakes in Biochemistry:  Glycogen


  1. Sander I. van Kasteren, Holger B. Kramer, Henrik H. Jensen, Sandra J. Campbell, Joanna Kirkpatrick, Neil J. Oldham, Daniel C. Anthony, Benjamin G. Davis. Expanding the diversity of chemical protein modification allows post-translational mimicry.  Nature, 446, 1105 (2007).

  2. Dzung H. Nguyen, Nancy Hurtado-Ziola, Pascal Gagneux, and Ajit Varki. Loss of Siglec expression on T lymphocytes during human evolution.  PNAS May 16, 2006 vol. 103 no. 20 7765-7770 .
  3. Cohen, J. Differences in Immune Cell "Brakes" May Explain Chimp-Human Split on AIDS.  Science 312 672 (2006)
  4. Borman, Stu. Carbohydrate Advances.  C&E News. August 6, pg 41 (2005).

  5. Genbacev, O. , et al. Trophoblast L-Selectin-Mediated Adhesion at the Maternal-Fetal Interface.  Science. 299, pg 405 (2003) (Review:  Vol 299, pg 355, 2003)
  6. Schfield et al. Synthetic GPI as a candidate anti-toxic vaccine in a model of malaria.  Nature. 418, pg 785 (2002)
  7. Samuelson et al. Making Membranes in Bacteria (moving proteins to the correct location).  Nature. 406. pg 575, 637 (2000)
  8. Seeberger et al. Sugars Join the Automation rush (sold phase synthesis of oligosaccharides). Science. 291, pg 805 (2001)
  9. Peters et al. Fusion needs more than SNARES (how membranes fuse).  Nature 409, pg 567 (2001)
  10. Saxon and Bertozzi. Cell Surface Engineering by a modified Staudinger reaction.  Science. 287. pg 2007 (2000)
  11. Humprhies et al, Forsberg et al.  Mast cell Heparin (role).  Nature.  400, pg 714, 769, 773 (1999)
  12. Mel�ndez-Hevia et al.  Glycogen Structure: an Evolutionary View", Technological and Medical Implications of Metabolic Control Analysis (ed. A. Cornish-Bowden and M. L. C�rdenas), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.  pp. 319--326 (2000)
  13. Helenius et al. Translocation of lipid-linked oligosaccharides across the ER membrane requires Rft1 protein.  Nature. 415. pg 382, 447 (2002)


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