|Plant Physiology (Biology 327) - Dr. Stephen G. Saupe; College of St. Benedict/ St. John's University; Biology Department; Collegeville, MN 56321; (320) 363 - 2782; (320) 363 - 3202, fax; email@example.com|
Introduction to Plant Physiology
I. The Tree of Life
A. Domains - Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
B. Kingdoms - Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Archaezoa, Protista, Plantae, Chromista, Fungi, Animal
C. Cladogram - in class
What is Plant?
A. Definition - by most definitions, a plant:
- is multicellular;
- is non-motile
- has eukaryotic cells
- has cell walls comprised of cellulose
- is autotrophic; and
- exhibits alternation of generations - has a distinctive diploid (sporophyte) and haploid (gametophyte) phase.
B. Examples - the Plant Kingdom includes the angiosperms (flowering plants), gymnosperms (cone-bearing plants), ferns, and bryophytes (mosses & liverworts). Recent classification systems suggest that these organisms, in addition to the red algae and green algae, should be classified in the Plant Kingdom (Plantae).
III. What is Plant Physiology?
A. Definitions (numerous) - Plant physiology is the study of:
- the functions and processes occurring in plants
- the vital processes occurring in plants
- how plants work
B. In essence, plant physiology is a study of the plant way of life, which include various aspects of the plant lifestyle and survival including: metabolism, water relations, mineral nutrition, development, movement, irritability (response to the environment), organization, growth, and transport processes.
C. Plant physiology is a lab science.
D. Plant physiology is an experimental science.
E. Plant physiology relies heavily on chemistry and physics.
IV. Why Study Plant physiology?
V. The Literature of Plant Physiology
There is an incredible wealth of information about plant physiology. Never say, "nothing is known about...." unless you are positive. Chances are someone, somewhere, sometime, has studied the phenomena. I think it was Bertrand Russell who said something like, "its easier to make a scientific discovery than to discover if its already been discovered." Since, theres so much literature available, it pays to learn a little about the types of resources that are available.
One reason why there is so much information is that plant physiology material is found in both the biological and chemical literature.
A. Types of literature
- Primary - original reports of research; journals. Two excellent journals that are published by the American Society of Plant Biology are Plant Physiology and Plant Cell, both of which are available in the Clemens Library. Well check out a copy of Plant Physiology and point out volume, number, date of publication, publisher, organization, format, etc.
- Non-primary - revisions, summaries, compilations, texts. One particularly good example is Annual Review of Plant Biology. You can also find helpful information in other volumes including the Annual Review of Phytopathology, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, and Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure. A new volume is published every year by Annual Reviews, Inc. For a listing of some good textbooks and general books in plant physiology, click here.
B. Keeping track of the literature - note cards, duplicate copies of articles, reprints, computer tracking programs.
C. Citation Format - various formats, varies with the journal/discipline. Well use the format adopted by Plant Physiology:
- Format for citing a journal article: Author AB, Author BC (1977) Title of article. Plant Physiology 59: 121-125
- Format for citing an article in a book: Author AB, Author BC, Author CD (1974) Title of article. In A Smith, B Jones, ed., Title of Book, Ed 2 Vol. 3. Publisher, City, pp. 14-19
- Format for citing a book: Author AB (1998) Title of Book. Publisher, City.
- Citations in text - again, many formats. We will cite references by author. Examples: Smith (1998) said that .... or, Apples grow on trees (Smith, 1998).
VI. Scientific Nomenclature
Do you remember the proper form for citing a scientific name? For more information about scientific nomenclature click here. Here is the general format for scientific names: Genus species Author citation (Family)
As an example: Quercus alba L. (Fagaceae)
VII. How Can I become a Plant Physiologist?
VIII. Test Yourself
01/08/2009 � Copyright by SG