Biochemistry Online: An Approach Based on Chemical Logic

Biochemistry Online





Learning Goals/Objectives for Chapter 9C:
After class and this reading, students will be able to

  • define kinases and phosphatases and their role in signal transduction
  • define primary and secondary messengers and give specific examples of each
  • describe the role of G proteins in coupling ligand induced conformational changes in the bound receptor to activation of specific effector proteins such as adenylate cyclase and phospholipase
  • differentiate between kinases activated by second messengers and those activated by primary messengers (ligand-gated receptor Tyr kinases)
  • describe the structural characteristics of G protein coupled serpentine receptors and ligand gated receptor tyrosine kinases
  • draw a diagram showing the general features of kinases mediated signal transduction pathways that lead to activation of gene expression
  • differentiate between neuron responses mediated by neurotransmitters on binding gated receptor/ion channels compares to G-protein coupled receptors

Estonian Translation by Anna Galovich

C14.  The Human Genome and Signal Transduction

With the determination and annotation of the human genome, it has become very clear that a significant fraction of the human genome (about 40% of the 58% of known genes determined by Venter et. al. and published in Science, 291, 1335, 2001) is devoted directly or indirectly to signal transduction processes.  These include signal molecules, receptors, kinases, regulators, protooncogenes and ion channels.   The chart below shows the relative distribution of over 26,000 genes of known function (with 42% still of unknown function.

Figure:  Distribution of Molecular Functions of 26,383 Genes

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