Biochemistry Online: An Approach Based on Chemical Logic

Biochemistry Online





Learning Goals/Objectives for Chapter 9C:
After class and this reading, students will be able to

  • define kinases and phosphatases and their role in signal transduction
  • define primary and secondary messengers and give specific examples of each
  • describe the role of G proteins in coupling ligand induced conformational changes in the bound receptor to activation of specific effector proteins such as adenylate cyclase and phospholipase
  • differentiate between kinases activated by second messengers and those activated by primary messengers (ligand-gated receptor Tyr kinases)
  • describe the structural characteristics of G protein coupled serpentine receptors and ligand gated receptor tyrosine kinases
  • draw a diagram showing the general features of kinases mediated signal transduction pathways that lead to activation of gene expression
  • differentiate between neuron responses mediated by neurotransmitters on binding gated receptor/ion channels compares to G-protein coupled receptors

Estonian Translation by Anna Galovich

C15.  Links and References

Web Sites

  • The Protein Kinase Resource

  • Signaling Pathways from Invitrogen

  • Pathways from Cell Signaling Technology

  • The Human Kinome

  • Phosphosite Plus

  • Protein Interaction Domains

  • Specificity in Signal Transduction

  • Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment (STKE) from Science

  • Mammalian MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways

  • cJun

  • Stanford Human Plasma Membrane Receptor web site. 

  • References

    1. Lu, J-Y et al. Acetylation of Yeast AMPK Controls Intrinsic Aging Independently of Caloric Restriction.  Cell 146, 969–979 (2011)
    2. Xiao, B. et al.  Structure of Mammalian AMPK and its Regulation by ADP.  Nature 472, 230 (2011)
    3. Pastalkova, E. et al. Storage of Spatial Information by the Maintenance Mechanism of LTP.  Science 313,  1141 (2006)
    4. Changeux, J.P. and Edelstein, S. J. Allosteric Mechanisms of Signal Transduction. Science 308, 1424 (2005)
    5. Cumming, R. et al.  Protein Disulfide Bond Formation in the Cytoplasm during Oxidative Stress.  J. Biol. Chem., 279, 21749 (2004)
    6. Rhee, S. H2O2, a Necessary Evil for Cell Signaling. Science 312, 1882 (2006)
    7. Sveningsson, P. et a. Diverse Psychotomimetics Act through a common signaling pathway.  Science.  302, pg 1412 (2003)
    8. Manning, G. et al.. The Protein Kinase Complement of the Human Genome. Science. 298, pg. 1912 (2002)
    9. van Meer, G. The Different Hues of Lipid Rafts. Science. 296. pg 855 (2002)
    10. Translocating Tubby (How cytoplasmic transcription factors are activated by release from the PI at membrane) . Science. 292, pg 2019 (2001)
    11. Kuriyuan and Schindler.  Cancer Fighter's modus of operandi revealed (about Gleevic in CML).  Science. 289. 1857 (2000)
    12. Pawloski et al. Targeted delivery of NO.  (requires receptor not just simple diffusion of gas). Nature. 409, pg 577, 622 (2001)
    13. Yaffe, M. and  Cantley, L. Grabbing phosphoproteins (what happens to proteins after phosphorylation). Nature. 402, pg 30 (1999)



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