CHAPTER 9 - SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
B: NEURAL SIGNALING
BIOCHEMISTRY - DR. JAKUBOWSKI
Learning Goals/Objectives for Chapter 9B:
After class and this
reading, students will be able to
- describe how a transmembrane ion gradient and nongated/gated
membrane ion channels specific for given ions can give rise to a
transmembrane electric potential across membranes
- given ion concentrations and the electrical potential across
a membrane, predict likely changes in the membrane potential and
ion concentrations on the opening of specific channnels;
- use the Goldman equation to predict transmembrane electrical
- state difference between the communication across the
neuromuscular junction and a synapse between two neurons;
- state the difference between nongated and gated ion
- describe different ways to open/close gated ion channels
- describe the immediate changes in the muscle cells when
acetylcholine is released into the neuromuscular junction
- describe the roles of stimulatory neurotransmitter
receptors, voltage-gated Na+and K+ channels and the Na/K-ATPase
in the activation of a neuron;
- explain the mechanism for selectivity of K+ over the smaller
Na+ ion in the K+ channel;
- briefly explain how membrane protein channels can be gated
open by changes in transmembrane potential;
B14. Links and References
channels for beginners.
a dowloadable program to simulate neural activity (from the U.MN)
Ion Channel Database
Flavors and Taste Receptors
Comparison of direct and indirect neurotransmitter actions, ligand-gated
vs. G-protein-coupled receptor.
Sobolevsky, A. et al. X-ray structure, symmetry and mechanism of an
AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor. Nature 462, 729, 745 (2009)
Xie, Xinan et al. Nicotine binding to brain receptors requires a
strong cation-π interaction. Nature doi:10.1038/nature07768
(published March 09)
Sarah C. R. Lummis, Darren L. Beene, Lori W. Lee, Henry A. Lester, R.
William Broadhurst, Dennis A. Dougherty. Cis/trans
isomerization at a proline opens the pore of a neurotransmitter-gated
ion channel. 438, 248 - 252 (2005),
Everts, S. Neuron Activation. C&E News. 44, Oct 2, 2006
Huang, A. et al. The cells and logic for mammalian sour taste
detection. Nature 442, pg 934 (2006)
Long, S. B. et al. Crystal Structure of a mammalian voltage-dependent
Shaker family K+ Channel. Science 309, 897 (2005); Long, S. B. et al.
Voltage Sensor of KV1.2: Structural Basis of Electromechanical Coupling.
Kung, C. A possible unifying principle for mechanosensation.
Nature 436, 647 (2005)
- Oliver, D. et al. Functional Conversion Between A-Type and Delayed
Rectifier K+ Channels by Membrane Lipids. Science. 304, pg 265 (2004)
- Davies, A. et al. A Central Role of the BK Potassium Channel in
Behavioral Response to Ethanol in C. Elegans. Cell, 115, pg 655 (2003)
- Miyazawa, A. et al. Structure and Gating mechanism of the
acetylcholine receptor pore. Nature, 423, pg 949 (2003)
- Jiang, Y, MacKinnon, R. et al. X-ray structure of a
voltage-dependent K+ channel. Nature. 423, pg 33 (2003); The Principle
of gating charge movement in a voltage-dependent K+ channel. Nature.
423, pg 42 (2003)
- Kandel et al. Principles of Neural Science, 3rd edition. Elsevier
(1991). This is the source for much of the material in this section.
- Schumacher and Adelman. An Open and Shut Case. (summairzing work
on Ca2+-gated K channel from MacKinnon's lab) Nature. 417, pg 501
- Sun et al. Mechanism of glutamate receptor desenitiziation. Nature.
238. pg 238, 245 (2002)
- Dutzler et. al. X-ray structure of a CIC Chloride Channel at 3.0
Angstroms Reveals the molecular basis of anion selectivity. Nature.
415, pg 276, 287 (2002)
- Berneche et al. Energetics of Ion
Conductions Through the K+ Channel. (use of dynamics) Nature. 414 p
23, 73 (2001)
- Sixma et al.. Snails, synapses, and smokers (nicotine/receptor).
Nautre, 411, pg 252 (2001)
- MacKinnon et al. 50 Years of Inactivation (How K+ channels are
closed). Nature. 411, pg 643, 657 (2001)
- McGaugh, J. Memory - a century of consolidation. Science. 287. pg
- Wilson et al. Cannabinoids act backward. (drugs that control
signaling from cannabinoids) Nature. 410, pg 527, 588 (2001)
- McGaugh. Memory - A century of consolidation. Science. pg 248 (2000)
- Olney et al. How alcohol damages the brain (Fetal alcohol
syndrome). Science. 287, pg 947, 1056 (2000)
- Hardy et al. Genetic Classification of Primary Neurodegenerative
Disease. Science 282, pg 1075 (1998)
- Greenberg et al. Learning more about the NMDA receptor regulation
(involved in learning and memory). Science. 295. pg 449, 491 (2002)
- Meshorer et el. Alternative Splicing and neuritic mRNA translocation
under long-term neuronal hypersensitivity (in PTSD) Science. 295. pg 508
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Neural Signaling Sections
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