Class 
Date 
Topics for
class 
Learning Goals/Objectives:
After class, reading, and practice, the
students will be able to 
1 
8/28
R A2 
Welcome, Distribute Lab Manual;
Online Resources;
Intro  What Chemists Do: Synthesize, Purify, Analyze;
Atoms, Molecules, Mixtures, and Separations
Understanding Chemistry: Macroscopic, Nanoscopic, Mathematical, and Symbolic 
 state what a chemists does
 differentiate between an element, compound and molecule
 differentiate between homogeneous (solutions) and heterogeneous
mixtures and give examples
 describe different methods to separate mixtures
 state the difference between physical and chemical processes

2 
9/1
M A4 
review syllabus;
review mixtures, their complexities and their
separations; chemical vs physical reactions

Understanding chemical and biological complexity: Macroscopic, Nanoscopic, Mathematical, and Symbolic
Problem Solving

Dimensional Analysis 
 state the differences between macroscopic, nanoscopic, symbolic, and
mathematical descriptions of matter
 give nanoscopic and mathematical descriptions of a measurable
macroscopic property of a gas
 describe general features of problem solving
 use dimensional analyses to solve problems involving unit conversion
 recognize when to use dimensional analyses to solve mathematical
problems.

3 
9/3
W A6 
 Is Lake Sag filled with oil and sulfuric acid?

Laws of Matter;

Dalton's Atomic Theory;
 The Divisible
Atom: cathode rays/demo;
 elephants, mosquitoes, and e/m

 state the laws of mass conservation, definite composition, multiple
proportion and how they led to Dalton's atomic theory
 state the differential between empirical laws and scientific
theories
 draw a sketch of a cathode ray tube
 identify dependent (varying and constant), independent variables in
the cathode ray experiment,
 state what variable(s) or derivative properies of an
electron can be determined from a cathode ray tube

4 
9/5
F A2 
 Millikan Oil Drop, calculation of e;

PlumPudding model;
 Rutherford, nuclear atom; planetary model;

Atomic Masses; isotopes and weighted
averages;
 first ionization energy – shells;
 Lewis Dot structure
 intro to bonding 
 state the origin/types of forces on a falling object in a
gravitation field and a charged object in the presence of another
charged object, using arrows to show the direction of the forces
 write expressions for the gravitation and
 draw a sketch of a Millikan oil drop apparatus,
and Rutherford's gold foil experiment.
 state what macroscopic variable(s) or derivative property of an
electron can be determined from the Millikan
oil drop experiment, and from the Rutherford experiment
 describe difference between isotopes of an element, how their atomic
masses are determined, and how the average atomic mass of an element is
calculated
 define 1st ionization energy for a gas phase atom
 interpret trends in 1st ionization energies of elements as a
function of the arrangement of electrons around atoms
 explain how electronic structures around atoms of a given element
affects the likelihood that an element will gain or release an electron
to form an ion and form ionic bonds, or share electrons and form
covalent bonds
 draw Lewis dot structures of atoms and use them to predict simple
covalent compounds of an element with H and ionic bonds with oppositely
charged ions

5 
9/9
T A4 
 Lewis Dot structure
 ionic, covalent, and polar covalent bonding
 FON and electronegativity;

Counting Electrons: formal charge; partial charge; octet/duet rule;

Lewis Structures 
 explain how electronic structures around atoms of a given element
affects the likelihood that an element will gain or release an electron
to form an ion and form ionic bonds, or share electrons and form
covalent bonds
 draw Lewis dot structures of atoms and use them to predict simple
covalent compounds of an element with H and ionic bonds with oppositely
charged ions

6 
9/11
R A6 
Quiz: Lewis Structures
 Lewis Structures; Salts, Acids, Acid reactivity and Lewis structures;
 pushing electrons: Reaction Mechanisms;
 acids and abases

polyatomic or molecular ions;
naming molecular ions 
 use Lewis structures to predict and draw reactions mechanisms (using
curved arrows) for acid/base reactions
 define acids and based based on electron pushing mechanisms
 write the formula and draw the Lewis structures for common oxyacids
 draw the Lewis structures and give names for molecular ions derived
from their parent oxyacid
 write formula and names for salts of metals and molecular ions from
oxyacids

7 
9/15
M A2 
Qz: Reaction Mechanism  Electron Push
 Salts of molecular ions;
Chapt 3
 Chemical
Equations; balancing chem equations;
 mole and
molar mass
 simple
stoichiometry: gravimetric analyses  prep for Lab 3 (9/16)

 write and balance a chemical equations using symbolic and nanoscopic
representations for reactants and products
 define and calculate molecular mass, mole, and molar mass for any
chemical substance
 using symbolic and nanoscopic representations in chemical equations,
solve mathematical stoichiometry problems using dimensional analyses

8 
9/17 W A4 

Examples typical types of stoich:  limiting/excess reagent, % composition,
empirical formula, combustion analysis

 develop a problem solving strategy for solving stoichiometry
problems involving limiting/excess reagent, combustion analyses, %
composition, and empirical formula.
 successfully solve stoichiometry problems involving limiting/excess
reagent, combustion analyses, % composition, and empirical formula.

9 
9/19
F A6 

Examples typical types of stoich:  limiting/excess reagent, % composition,
empirical formula, combustion analysis

 explain the similarities between the extensive macroscopic
properties of density and solution concentration
 define the following types of solutions concentrations: %
(g/V) and molarity (M)
 calculate then number of moles of a substance from density and
solution concentration information
 solve problems involving how to make solutions of different
molarities from solid reagents and from concentrated stock solutions.

10 
9/23
T B2 
Solution stoichiometry in class and in lab on 9/25 
 solve solution stoichiometry problems given volume and/or molarities
of reactant/products in aqueous solution

Benedictine Heritage Day 
11 
9/26 F B4 
Test 1 
12 
9/30
T B6 
Review Test;
 Lb 4: %
Acetic Acid Solutions  are they the same?
 What's in the
Beaker; Electrolytes (Lab 2 Data)
 Precipitation Reactions; Molecular, Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations;
Solubility Rules (See pg 112; also OLSG) 
 after reviewing test 1, start to develop new strategies for problem
solving and test taking
 use mathematical analyses to compare the likelihood that calculated
macroscopic observable values for two different samples are the same or
different;
 define and give examples of strong and weak electrolytes, and
soluble and insoluble substances in water
 better correlate and connect class and lab experiences in developing
critical thinking and analysis skills
 write the formulas, draw Lewis structures, and draw nanoscopic
representation of the actual chemical species found in water after the
addition of ionic salts and molecule solids, liquids and gases
 write the formulas for soluble and insoluble chemical species
present after the addition of two aqueous solutions
 state the simple solubility rules
 using solubility rules, write molecular, ionic, and net ionic
equations for precipitation reactions.

FREE DAY 10/23 
13 
10/6
M B2 
 Overview: Precipitation,
Acid/Base and Redox reactions;   Molecular, Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations;
Solubility Rules (See pg 112; also OLSG)

Acid/Base Rx.

Strong and Weak Acids and bases; conjugate acids/bases;
Redox reactions: oxidizing and reducing agents 

14 
10/8 W B4 
Acid/Base:
strong Acid/bases, Weak acid bases
 ranking acids and bases in reactions:
Start Redox reactions 
 given paired reactions with a common acid or base, rank order all
acids and bases in the reactions based on your knowledge of common
strong acids/bases and weak acids and bases
 given structural similar acids, predict trends in the strength of
the acid by analyzing the Lewis structure of the conjugate bases
 state the relatives meanings of high or low reactivity, energy and
compared to strong and weak bases.

15 
10/10 F B6 
 Redox
reactions;
 Strength oxid
agent/reducing agent (EN, Core Charge)
 predicting direction of acids/base and redox reaction from charts

oxidation # (done in Lab 10/9: analysis of Cu ammonia complex;
 balance redox eq.  acid. (You will only need
to know the 1/2 rx method for balancing Redox equations, and only in acidic
solutions)

 predict reactions products of acid/base and redox reactions from
tables showing the relative strength of acids/bases and
oxidizing/reducing agents
 use the 1/2 reaction method to balance redox reactions in acidic
conditions.

16 
10/14 T B2 
Name that reaction:
Intro to Quantum Chemistry: the Dalton, the Plum Pudding (Thompson), The
Planetary Atom (Rutherford)  review;
Forces, acceleration, oscillating charges and fields;
The instability of the planetary atom

 develop a conceptual framework to identify and predict the products
of precipitation, acid/base and redox reactions
 state how a net force can change the motion of a fixed object or one
moving at constant velocity
 state why the planetary model of atoms violates classical physical
views of an orbiting electron as an oscillating charge

17 
10/16 R B4 
Quiz: OLSG Web Links for 10/16
 properties of waves: reflection, refraction, diffraction,
interference (constructive/destructive), superposition (adding);
 light as a wave
 Force, Energy, and work; 
 define force, energy, and work and state how they are interrelated
 define and differentiate potential and kinetic energy
 state the properties of waves
 write formulas and explain the variables in the formulas for:
 force as a function of mass
 gravitational and electromagnetic force
 speed of a wave
 momentum of a particle
 gravitational and electromagnetic energy

18 
10/20 M B6 
 Problem with
planetary model: discrete energies, radii, instability; fields
 light as a particle: Photoelectric effect
 light interactions with matter: absorption/emission spectra gases;
 
 state two characteristics of how waves carry energy
 interpret a graph of E vs freq for a photoelectron and state
experimental observations concerning photelectrons that can NOT be
explained by assuming light is a wave
 explain how experimental observations concerning photelectrons can
be
explained by assuming light is a particle (photon)
 qualitatively describe atomic absorption and emission spectra

19 
10/22 W C2 

Empirical Equation to predict line spectra: Rydberg Eq;
 Theoretical Equation to predict line spectra: Bohr Equation/Bohr
Atom  electron
as a wave: deBroglie, Bohr, Schrodinger, and Heisenberg

 explain how discrete (vs continuous) atomic emission and absorption
line spectra are consistent with a planetary model of the atom when the
orbital energies of the electrons are quantized;
 explain why the planetary model of the atom is incompatible with
classical physics
 explain how Bohr used standing waves to model electrons around H
atoms to create a "stable atom"
 interpret the deBroglie equation and from the Schrodinger Equation,
the wave function () and W^{2}
 explain how quantum numbers n, l, ml, and ms are derived and their
relationships to s, p, d, and f orbitals
 write box and shorthand notion for the electron configuration of
atoms

20 
10/24 F C4 
 review
wavelike properties of atoms;
 Orbitals;
quantum numbers, and electron
Configurations; 
 explain how quantum numbers n, l, ml, and ms are derived and their
relationships to s, p, d, and f orbitals
 write box and shorthand notion for the electron configuration of
atoms

21 
10/28 T C6 
 UV/Vis
absorption/emission; ESR, NMR;
review potential and kinetic energies of electrons
 review Columbs law  Zeff;
 Periodic
Trends in atomic and ionic radii;

 define Zeff
 Using Zeff values and a knowledge of electron configurations,
predict trends in atom and ion size, ionization energy, electron
affinity,

22 
10/30
R C2 
 periodic
trends in ionization energy, electron affinity
 ionic bonds;
Lattice Energy, BornHaber cycle;

 calculate, given energies for a series of individual reactions that
would add up to the formation of a salt like NaCl from its component
elements, Na(s) and Cl_{2} (g), the energy change on salt
formation, and the energy change (lattice energy) required to
break up the salt into separate ions in the gas phase;
 Using Coloumbs law, predict for similar salts the relative size of
their lattice energies

23 
11/3
F C4 

24 
11/5 W C6 

Covalent Bond;
Lewis Structures 2 
 convert Lewis structures of of organic molecules that contain all
atoms and lone pairs into line drawings;
 convert line drawings of organic molecules into full Lewis structure
with the correct number of bonds, atoms and lone pairs;
 draw the Lewis structures for molecules with expanded octets,
deficient octets, free radicals
 draw Lewis structure with different resonance structures and
determine which is most stable (lowest in energy) and hence most likely
to exist

25 
11/7 F C2 
 Lewis
Structures 2;
 Bond Energy,
Quant Mechanical Explanation covalent
bond;
 VSEPR;
(2008: on 11/5)

 draw Lewis structures of triatomic molecules with different atom
connectivities and determine which is most stable (lowest in energy) and
hence most likely to exist
 predict the geometrical arrangement of electron clouds emanating
from a central atom using the VSEPR model
 using dotted lines/wedges and bolded line/wedges to depict the 3D
geometry of electron clouds emanating from the central atom in which the
clouds are arranged in a tetrahedral, trigonal (triangular) bipyramidal,
and octahedral geometries.
 predict the geometric shapes and bond angles for atoms bonded to a
central atom from the geometry of the electron clouds emanating from the
central atom

26 
11/11 T C4 
 VSEPR,
Polarity, Dipoles;

 define a dipole mathematically and determine from the arrangement of
electron clouds around a central atom if the atoms has a dipole
 draw a +> symbol on a Lewis structure of a molecule
indicating the direction of the dipole.

27 
11/13 R C6 
 Review VSEPR geometry

Qz: VSEPR
 Valence Bond Theory  overlap of atomic orbitals
 Hybridization

 Using box diagrams for electronic configurations and drawn shapes
for atomic orbitals, show how single and double bonds can form between
two atoms by overlap of atomic orbitals in simple diatomic molecules;
 draw orbital pictures to show the different between sigma and pi
bonds
 using box diagrams for electronic configurations and drawn shapes
for orbitals to show how equivalent hybrid atomic orbitals consistent
with the observed and VSEPRpredicted geometry can be generated through
combination of the same number of s and p orbitals
 differentiate between sp^{3}, sp^{2} and sp
hybridized orbitals and how they can be used to form sigma bonds of the
correct geometry with atomic orbitals of H or hybridized orbitals of
other atoms.

28 
11/17 M D2 
 Homework Qz: O hybridization in H_{2}CO
 hybridization and VSEPR: sp, sp^{2}, sp^{3},
sp^{3}d, sp^{3}d^{2}
 Polarity and Dipole Moment

Molecular Orbital Theory
 Bond Order
 Spartan Electron Densities:CH_{4} to HF, H_{2} to LiH, H_{3}O^{+}
and formal charges
 Bond Energies and Trends: HH and HF, N_{2} and H_{2}
 Avg bond energies: H_{2}, F_{2}, I_{2}, HF,
and HI: electronegatiivty

 explain the difference between an atomic orbital and a molecular
orbital
 using a box diagram show how two equivalent atomic orbitals of
equivalent energy can be combined to form two molecular orbitals, one a
bonding molecular orbital and one an antibonding orbital.
 using a wave function m for an atomic orbital on an atom A and m for
an atomic orbital on an atom B, show how they can mathematically combine
to produce a bonding and an antibonding molecular orbital
 place electrons in molecular orbitals for diatomic molecules, given
a box energy diagram showing the relative energy of the bonding,
antibonding, and nonbonding orbitals.
 from a filled (with electrons) molecular orbital energy diagram,
predict the bond order between the two interacting atoms
 draw pictures illustration electron density derived from Spartan
calculations for simple molecules studied in the Spartan lab
 describe the difference in electron density of a water molecule
calculated using Spartan compared to the tradition Lewis structure.
 Define bond energy
 Using Lewis structures, predict trends in bond energies between
diatomic molecules

29 
11/19 W D4
11/20
R D5
in lab 
 Energy,
Energy Conservation, Internal Energy,
 State Functions.
 PV Work, ΔE = q + w. Signs of q, W, E;
 Enthalpy, ΔH;
First Law

ΔH and bond
dissociation energies or bond enthalpies 
 state the differences between force, energy and work
 state the 1st Law of Thermodynamics in words and mathematically
 state the differences between the system, surroudings, and the
universe
 state two ways to transfer energy
 define work
 write an equation for the energy changes of a system,
ΔE as a function of q and
w.
 write an equation for the energy changes of a system,
ΔE as a function of q and
w. when W involves volume changes of a gas at constant external pressure
 predict the sign of
ΔE, q, and W for a variety
of circumstances
 Write an equation that defines the change in
enthalpy mathematically
 define enthalpy verbally and mathematically
 calculate ΔH
for a chemical reaction from bond dissociation energies (or bond
enthalpies
 draw energies diagrams and use them to calculate
ΔH for a chemical
reaction from bond dissociation energies (or bond enthalpies)

30 
11/21 F D6 
Standard State
ΔH
and Standard
enthalpy formation
 Hess's Law,

 define standard enthalpy of formation
 calculate ΔH
for a chemical reaction from standard enthalpies of formation
 combine thermochemical equations to
calculate DH values for net reactions

31 
11/25 T D2 
 Heat Capacity
 Calculation ΔH rx's from: calorimetry:
 Coffee Cup Calorimetry. 
 define heat capacity, specific heat (c), and
molar heat capacity
 solve quantitative and qualitative problems given
specific heat values and q=mcΔT

Thanksgiving 11/2628 
32 
12/2
T D4 
Gas Laws: Boyle's, Charlie's, Avogadro's, Ideal

Kinetic Molecular Theory
 Meaning of temperature 
 define pressure
 explain how a closed end column containing Hg or water when its open
end is immersed in an open resevoir of either Hg or water, respectively,
can be used to determine atmospheric pressure
 draw graph and write mathematical equations for the graphs that show
how V (dependent variable) depends on P (constant n, T), T (constant P,
n) and n (constant P, T)
 combine the mathematical equations above to give the ideal gas law
 explain the different between empirical laws and theories
 list the assumptions of the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT).
 Describe how the meaning of temperature can be mathematically
derived by combining the empirical ideal gas law and the theoretical
equation for P from KMT

33 
12/4 R D6 
Test 3 
34 
12/8
M D2 
Ideal Gas Law/KMT problems 
 Solve typical problems based on the ideal gas law and KMT.
 Differential between effusion and diffusion

35 
12/10 W D4 
Problem Solving  MCQ 
Topic 3 
Concept Inventory
Multiple Choice Quest 
36 
12/12 F D6 
Course Survey Problem Solving  MCQ 
Topic 3 
More
Review Multiple Choice Questions
More Multiple Choice Questions:
Equations to know and love
Final Review Concepts

Review Session: TBA 
Final Exam: TBA (Dec 1618)
Note: You will not be allowed to bring a graphing calculator into the
final exam. A regular calculator that can do scientific notation will
be adequate. 