Biochemistry Online: An Approach Based on Chemical Logic

Biochemistry Online


D:  mTOR and Nutrient Signaling 



Learning Goals/Objectives for Chapter 9D:
After this reading, students will be able to

  • Describe the structure of mTOR Complex I and II;
  • Describe how rapamycin inhibits mTORC1;
  • Draw a cartoon of a generic protein kinase showing how its activity and specificity is regulated by activation and catalytic loops along with other protein binding partners;
  • Describe the structural differences between mTORC1 kinase and other kinases.
  • List typical substrates of mTORC1 and mTORC2;
  • Draw cartoons to show how Leu interacts with sestrin 2 and how this interaction activates mTORC1;
  • Describe how mTORC1 is recruited to lysosomal membranes and regulated by leucine through sestrin2, GATOR (GAP) proteins, Rag (small G) proteins, and Ragulator (GEF) proteins;
  • Explain how interactions of mTORC1 with Tsc 2/1 (GAP) proteins and Rheb (small G) proteins regulate mTORC1;
  • Describe how mTORC1 kinase activity is regulated by insulin through Akt and growth factors through MAP kinases;
  • Describe the different effects in metabolism mediated by AMPK and mTORC1

D1.  Introduction of Nutrient Signaling

D2.  mTOR Inhibition by Rapamycin

D3.  mTOR Protein Kinase Structure and Activity

D4.  Regulation of mTORC1 by Leucine

D5.  Regulation of mTORC1 by Energy Availability - AMP Kinase

D6.  Regulation of mTORC1 by Insulin and Growth Factors

D7.  Links and References


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Archived version of full Chapter 9C:  Signaling Proteins

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Biochemistry Online by Henry Jakubowski is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.