Reactivity in Chemistry
Addition to Carbonyls
and Other Carbon-Heteroatom Multiple Bonds
with problems contributed by Kate Graham, Nicholas Jones and Ed McIntee
CO1. Carbonyls in Biology
CO2. Carbonyls are Electrophiles
CO3. General Reactivity Patterns
CO3b. General Reactivity Patterns, Part B
CO4. Reaction Mechanism
CO5. MO Picture of Carbonyls
CO6. Relative Reactivity of Carbonyls
CO7. Elementary Steps: Nucleophilic Addition
CO8. Elementary Steps: Protonation of Oxygen
CO9. What is a Good Nucleophile?
CO10. What is a Solvent?
CO11. Semi-Anionic Nucleophiles: Grignards and Complex Hydrides
CO12. Enolate Addition: Aldol Reactions
CO13. Activation of Carbonyls
CO14. Addition of Neutral, Protic Nucleophiles
CO15. Elementary Steps: Proton Transfer Steps
CO16. Elementary Steps: Pi Donation Steps
CO17. Sugars: Pyranose and Furanose Forms
CO18. The Anomeric Center
CO19. Biological Reduction
CO21. Ylide Addition
CO22. Conjugate Addition
CO23. Conjugate Addition-Elimination in Aromatics
CO24. Carbonyl in Synthesis: Getting Started
CO25. Carbonyl Addition Summary: Mechanistic Steps
CO26. Additional Problems
CO27. Solutions to Selected Problems, CO1-12
CO28. Solutions to Selected Problems, CO13-26
This site is written and maintained by Chris P. Schaller, Ph.D., College of Saint Benedict / Saint John's University (with contributions from other authors as noted). It is freely available for educational use.
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This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1043566.
Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
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