Reactivity in Chemistry

Addition to Carbonyls

and Other Carbon-Heteroatom Multiple Bonds

with  problems contributed by Kate Graham, Nicholas Jones and Ed McIntee

CO1.  Carbonyls in Biology

CO2.  Carbonyls are Electrophiles

CO3. General Reactivity Patterns

CO4.  Reaction Mechanism

CO5.  MO Picture of Carbonyls

CO6.  Relative Reactivity of Carbonyls

CO7.  Nucleophilic Addition

CO8.  Protonation of Oxygen

CO9.  What is a Good Nucleophile?

CO10.  What is a Solvent?

CO11.  Semi-Anionic Nucleophiles

CO12.  Enolate Addition and Homologation

CO13.  Activation of Carbonyls

CO14.  Addition of Neutral, Protic Nucleophiles

CO15.  Proton Transfer Steps

CO16.  Pi Donation Steps

CO17.  Sugars: Pyranose and Furanose Forms

CO18.  The Anomeric Center

CO19.  Biological Reduction

CO20.  Oxidation

CO21.  Ylide Addition

CO22.  Conjugate Addition

CO23.  Conjugate Addition-Elimination in Aromatics

CO24.  Carbonyl in Synthesis: Getting Started

CO25.  Carbonyl Addition Summary: Mechanistic Steps

CO26. Additional Problems

CO27.  Solutions to Selected Problems, CO1-12

CO28.  Solutions to Selected Problems, CO13-26


This site is written and maintained by Chris P. Schaller, Ph.D., College of Saint Benedict / Saint John's University (with contributions from other authors as noted).  It is freely available for educational use.

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This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1043566.

Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.



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